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[OWL WATCH] Waiting for "IOTA TIME" 14;
Disclaimer: This is my editing, so there could be some errors, misunderstandings or exaggerations. Waiting for "IOTA TIME " (an era where IOTA defines nearly everything in terms of the block-chain world) niels12어제 오후 4:51 IOTA funds are public:https://thetangle.org/address/IDNAFP9FWWKYGNDMKGJWZD9GATGRPTJYTYHLKFNDEQSISPSETLZQOSPGOHC99LMPXDEHSH9XYHNVOLUBBQPCEGHYK9But they have probably other sources of income, like funding by government etc. And maybe also other IOTA funds on other addresses. I don't know. Balance: 59.68 Ti David Sønstebø어제 오후 9:41 I wonder how many times an out of context 2 year old private DM has to be addressed. At the time IOTA was approaching stagnation due to the actions of primarily CFB**, thus since we both started Jinn together which lead to IOTA,** I tried repeatedly to talk sense into him.I.E. "If you are going to torpedo all progress, let's just sell it all and start from scratch, fuck it"It's a figure of speech, while trying to talk sense into someone who insists that 1 + 1 = 3.59 My tax records show when I last sold iotas. February of 2018. Now stop reading into private DMs, especially ones taken out of context and especially those leaked by someone who's proclaimed he is going to ruin IOTAand my life. You need to go back to school if you think there is anything to 'speculate' on there. dom어제 오후 4:15 u/unsywe will release the condensed version of them once we want to.Just because you so desperately desire them for whatever reason doesn't make us do it faster. Being in this space for so fucking long,last thing I want is to attempt to act in good faith again and then be screwed over by those trying to misconstrue reality and spread lies.We've been at that for too long.Once they are fully ready, and we have them in a format we like, we will publish them. dom어제 오후 4:16 Our objective of the finance / legal department is to become one of the most trustworthy / transparent organizations in this space. Which is why we're setting up new and stricter policies in general dom어제 오후 4:18 quite frankly, with everything that has happened up until now, I would certainly say thatwe are one of the most transparent organization(if we wanted it or not)u/unsy dom어제 오후 4:21 u/unsyI am not worried about it.If we have problems, we always solve them - I think we've proven that by now. And as it stands right now with our current funding + our strategy, we are in good hands David Sønstebø오늘 오전 6:41 Don't worry, a shitty FUD piece in a cryptoblog is nada [오전 6:41] We were once numero uno target by Jeffrey Epstein funded Joi Ito's MIT DCI [오전 6:41] This is nothing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Antonio Nardella [IF]어제 오후 11:13 IMO the community has matured a lot, we have community and certified developers working with the IF in the X-Teams, there are new people coming in with direct interest in the tech (yeah, also spec is still popular) and from the chats that I've had, there are devs waiting for the breaking changes of Chrysalis P2, before starting to develop again..But that's my assessment.. Jelle Millenaar [IF]어제 오후 9:15 Well, I can say the DID developments are going smooth. Starting publishing the first DIDs to the Tangle ;D Jelle Millenaar [IF]어제 오후 9:15 And since I am totally not biased towards Identity, but its gonna be revolutionary ;D Jelle Millenaar [IF]어제 오후 10:06 This is the perfect time to loose faith in the IOTA Foundations capability to deliver, especially after the network just received a major update with many improvements. Its just crypto being crypto, dom오늘 오전 2:12 Yeh we'll go through it. This is the usual game... Dominik Schiener There is more tech maturity, more adoption and more progress than ever. We are one of the only projects which gets funding from government grants and corporations.Stop the attention grabbing headlines and get your sources right. Long field You can track their iota address, and I can tell they didn't sell any iota tokens in last two months HusQy IOTA is like a large decentralized network cable that connects any number of nodes with each other and that enables data and values to be exchanged with one another, whereby the data is protected against manipulation and the value transactions against double spends. Thereon ... ... you can run any decentralized application (we call this layer) - e.g. a blockchainthat stores certain data for as long as you want and limits the amount of data to be saved via fees like Bitcoin.Each of these uses inherit ... ... your security from the basic protocol and can specifically only save the data that is relevant for you (also decentralized).To say that IOTA is not a DLT is in principle not that wrong -it is a platform for DLTs and therefore much more powerful than all ... ... existing DLTs because it is much more flexible. For example, you can run Hashgraph in IOTA, or Bitcoin or whatever. And IOTA is the token that connects the entire ecosystem. This is of course "not yet" the case, but Chrysalis Part 2 is the first step. HusQy @blocktrainerperhaps this explanation will enable you to understand where the journey is going.If a decentralized data storage is required, then you can build it with IOTA and it then has exactly the same properties in terms of permanent storage as Bitcoin. Block trainer We can also get a little more technical.The way you describe it, it sounds like an interoperability layer ... something like that here, which then equates to a polkadot etc. 📷 HusQy In principle yes, only that it doesn't connect Bitcoin and ETH but "IOTA Smart Contracts" with "IOTA Storage" etc. It is not there to connect other projects but to offer the same as other projects, only faster and cheaper. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bitcoin Coach And in 5 years there will be a completely new project, which then claims to be better than IOTA. And then should all the infrastructure be thrown overboard and the partners simply change the DLT? HusQy This is how technology works.It makes no sense to run the Internet on the basis of 64k modems just because many people have one at home.The change does not take place overnight but creeping and if you look at the BTC Dominance you can see that too. Ultimately, everything will switch to the best technology and we'll see which that is :) Block trainer The "best" must also be defined. What are the classes to master? HusQy All classes. If there is a technology that can represent even one aspect better, then it is not yet good enough. Blockchain, for example, is a "degenerate" DAG with only one reference. The goal is that IOTA can also use blockchains if the use case requires it. HusQy The future is not "either DAG or blockchain" but both seamlessly linked within the same ecosystem. IOTA smart contracts use a blockchain, for example, but a separate chain for each smart contract and the blockchain is within the tangle. Block trainer According to the new definition, they are no longer saved ... A doublespent could change the reference retrospectively. HusQy That's not quite true.The tangle itself contains all information for all eternity and you cannot remove any information. Once the data has reached a certain age, it is no longer stored by every node in the network. But you can still ... ... still prove what happened in the part of the tangle that was "forgotten" by the nodes after a certain time. Now there are two ways to keep this evidence: 1. You save the evidence personally and can present it at any time. 2. Man ... ... writes a plug-in for the node, which monitors the Tangle for information of a certain type and keeps a copy of all car purchase-related data forever (or for at least 30 years, for example). All dealerships could then install this plugin and ... ... jointly store this data decentrally in order to query the information if necessary. However, you would only selectively save the data that interests you. The evidence they produce can still be verified by any node on the network. If the server of a car dealership fails, it can download the data again from one of the other dealerships. Quasi like an application-related private blockchain which is secured by the Tangle. It is also conceivable that there are service providers for this ... ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HusQy Data is only kept immutable. How do you intend to execute a token transaction over pure data? I'm simply sending the following two data transactions at the same time: 1. I'm sending $ 100 from address A to address B. 2. I'm sending $ 100 from address A to address C. HusQy In order to determine which transaction is successful / came first, you need consensus. Data transactions do not allow token transfer. Block trainer Why doesn't that allow token transfer? I can simply use it to sign my values. The question is about the meaning of the token. I can also sign that I have transferred € 10 for the petrol station. Or I transmit the proof via curled BTC ... HusQy Did I just describe you can publish two conflicting data transactions and no one knows which is the correct one: P Block trainer Unless you agree on a consensus. Time stamp + BTC (locked) in hash = value transmitted ... What else is the IOTA token for? HusQy Whether information is correct can only be seen in the context. Take a look at the difference between "data" and "information". For example, you can claim that you locked Bitcoin even though it didn't. Block trainer I may need a proof of this. See how, for example, BTC is unlocked in liquid or in the LN. The IOTA data layer is extremely similar to the principle of Lightning. Accordingly, the sending of tokens would be possible here, which means that I see the use case of the IOTA coin at risk HusQy Such a proof is impossible. The reason why this works with LN nodes is because LN nodes are Bitcoin nodes that know what is happening in the Bitcoin network and have "information" and not just "data": P What you are describing is technically impossible. Block trainer Data = information What can the LN not, what IOTA can sometimes? HusQy That's not rubbish.There is a huge difference between data and information, and inter-chain transactions are not possible because of that very difference. LN won't work - there are too many game theory problems: P -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dominik Schiener There is more tech maturity, more adoption and more progress than ever. We are one of the only projects which gets funding from government grants and corporations.Stop the attention grabbing headlines and get your sources right. Dominik Schiener As an innovation leader in Europe, I certainly say we deserve to get grants.There is a below 7% success chance usually. And yes,everything is fully audited (by externals ofc), showing clearly how and that the money was used in achieving the milestones of the grant. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Introduction Celo Technical Review: What Celo Wants to Achieve? Celo’s main motive is to make their crypto currency as a platform of payments. These are some of the problems faced in the crypto industry now: - Existing crypto currencies like Bitcoin are not used as payment platforms as they are considered store of value due to their deflationary nature. - Crypto in itself is very difficult with bad UIs and very difficult for the users to manage their keys and they require the public key of the user whom they want to send payment. - There is no concrete governance structure in crypto currencies. Celo wants to eliminate the above problems by following methods: - They are proposing to introduce a stable coin with elastic supply backed by variable reserves - They are using Address Based encryption to make ease of use of payments - They are introducing Governance structure at different levels. What is Address Based Encryption? Address Based Encryption is a novel approach of enabling the user to use their phone number or email address as a secure way of messaging. Users generate traditional ways of public / private key and encrypt their public key with their phone number, so they can use their phone number to send / receive Celo money. This encrypted value will be stored in a database and committed by the validator. This is what Celo is mainly pitching to reduce the dependency on people to use their public keys while transferring payment to reduce user onboarding. All one has to do is a one-time setup and then you can use your phone number as an address for sending payments! As simple as that! This is what Celo is hoping to achieve. Although this model does bring its own set up of problems, Celo addressed these issues and how they plan to resolve these in their white paper. We have some queries on these approaches which we will address at the end of this review. What is Elastic Coin Supply? Celo has two assets, Celo Gold and Celo Dollar. - Celo Dollar which will be the stablecoin. Celo Dollar will be elastic in nature as it will be freshly minted if the price goes above the peg. - Celo Gold is the utility token of the blockchain. Celo Gold will be used for governance, staking and as an incentive for developers which will be put in reserve. Celo Governance Since Celo uses Proof of Stake, Celo Gold will be used for staking and also for any governance decision making. This will be done by sending the Celo Gold tokens to a smart contract with a withdrawal notice set for a duration. White Paper Summary Overall, a good paper presented well. The value of Celo Gold will depend upon the usability of the Celo platform. Perhaps, something to learn from ETH where the value of ETH has risen because one can build various tokens on the ETH network. Questions for Celo Team (White Paper) - For the Address based encryption, it is mentioned that validators will be used to attest the signatures. * Our Question(s): How many validators will be used and what's the slashable criteria for the validators? - For mitigating the DDOS, a cost to attestation is required, which basically means users sending out a fee for attestation. * Our Question(s): Wouldn't this hamper a new user, as he has to pay a fee just for registering his key? Also, what is the time overhead required for the validators to verify and attest the message? - Regarding the Elastic Coin Supply, it is mentioned that when the Celo Dollar price is above peg, new coins will be minted and instead of distributing them to the user, they will be used to buy various other crypto-assets and sell them when required. * Our Question(s): What are the assets that will be bought is not cleamentioned and weI really think this is not a good method as we know the value of crypto assets might decay over a period of time. Any thoughts on that? Also, who will cover for that if net value ends up as loss? - Also, to be elected validator, it was mentioned that the users can form groups and pitch themselves to be validators. * Our Question(s): Wouldn't this make the protocol more centralized, something akin to a DPOS system? Other Question(s): - What are the criteria of slashing funds of a validator? - What about storage problems, since they are forking ETH, wouldn't they inherit the same problems ETH has with respect to speed and storage overhead? - To make any technical improvements, anybody can make a bonded deposit and validators can vote on that. But wouldn't this pave way to the incorrect technical improvements to be made and also will the deposit be slashed if there is incorrect spec on the improvement submitted by the developer? - What will be the function of a smart contract platform in addition to the bonded deposits and attestation of messages? Celo Code Review Celo Repositories and Blockchain: Celo has 69 repositories. Initial observations are that Celo blockchain is a fork / copy of GETH with some modifications. Key Modifications: - Addition of BLS signatures - Addition of Istanbul-BFT consensus in place of POW - Introduction of Celo Gold Tokens BLS Signatures: A simple explanation is that BLS Signatures offer a better way of aggregating signatures and reducing the storage in blocks. However, verification of these signatures still takes time. IBFT Consensus - Istanbul BFT consensus: A simple explanation of IBFT Consensus is that it is modified PBFT which is most suitable for permissioned networks. This consensus works well with a smaller set of validators and is fast and also offers safety for up to 2/3 of the dishonest nodes. Celo Gold Tokens: Celo Gold Tokens is a native token of Celo Blockchain, just like ETH for ethereum blockchain. Having reviewed all the repositories, we feel that there are a lot of other repos which have most of the code they have mentioned in the white paper, like Governance, Slashing, Stable Coin etc. Overall, all the other reports are well maintained. We don’t see any major red flags in their repositories. Questions for Celo Team (Code): - Our only observation is that we are still unable to understand why they would be needing a separate blockchain to carry out all aforementioned functions. Can't they use PoA network, which is similar to their blockchain, and they can still add the aforementioned functions or better be as a sidechain to ETH? - What's the reason for forking ETH? - What’s the Unique Selling point for Celo in the midst of several stable currencies, are we relying only on the one point of ease of access? Should I invest in Celo or not? The Matrix's Red Pill or Blue Pill or Celos’ Green Pill — Which Is Better? Discuss, ask questions here and we will learn. source:https://t.me/DotCrypto
I requested a check be sent in the mail because I didn't want to get involved with Bitcoin, a wallet, a blockchain, etc. It felt kind of more of a hassle than receiving a check. But it isn't that much of a hassle. Also I received a phonecall from Bovada who helped me gain confidence for using Bitcoin. I wanted to vouch for them and give you my rundown of how easy it is. 1. Download CashApp app. It's trusted. Verify your identity. 2. Download Blockchain app. It's trusted. Create an account. 3.On Blockchain app, click "recieve" to generate a code. Copy the code. 4. Go to Bovada, go to withdraw, withdraw your desired amount, paste the code. 5. Transfer your funds from your Blockchain account to your CashApp account using the same method. 6. Sell your Bitcoin and cash out. For some explanation, Blockchain is used so CashApp doesn't trouble you for transacting with Bovada. Everything can be done by your phone with trusted apps. You don't have to use CashApp but it's what I used. The steps are literally make an account, copy & paste and wait for money to move around. I hope this gives some people an understanding on how easy it actually is.
Bitcoin Billionaire Reviews : Complete Sign Up Guide 
We as a whole realize what Bitcoin Billionaire Billionaire are, at any rate from a fundamental perspective, and most wise tech darlings have at any rate thought about buying some type of digital money. In case you're among the individuals who are really charmed by all types of cryptographic forms of money, at that point you additionally realize that the arrangement of code which they all sudden spike in demand for is known as a blockchain. What Are Bitcoin Billionaire Block Explorers? For Bitcoin Billionaire (and alt-coins, as well), the blockchain is a continuous record of each exchange that has each happened utilizing that cash. The chain is persistently getting longer as new squares are finished and get connected as far as possible as another arrangement of recorded information. Each new connection in the chain is included as it happens, giving it an unmistakable straight recipe. The explanation the blockchain is so productive is on the grounds that it very well may be seen by anybody, yet it can't be duplicated. This permits genuinely open source coding and straightforwardness of information without giving up security. Envision an information sheet that is copied on each PC that is associated with the web, and afterward envision that updates can be made to this sheet progressively from anyplace on the planet. These updates will be appeared to everybody seeing it immediately. On the off chance that you can picture that, at that point you have a simple comprehension of how the blockchain functions. The entirety of the information in a blockchain exists as an unendingly shared and continually refreshed database. The blockchain utilizes organizing that gives everybody a precise perspective on all records progressively. It isn't recorded in any single stockpiling gadget or housed on a specific remote server. Rather, it's records are kept really open and exist all over the place. Since there is no focal stockpiling or ace duplicate of this information, it is highly unlikely for programmers to degenerate it. The blockchain is facilitated by a huge number of PCs at the same time and is lucid and evident by any individual who approaches the web. As a result of the way the blockchain works, it gives another degree of unparalleled straightforwardness and receptiveness to the budgetary world. Since the data is all visible progressively, it is just normal that numerous individuals are interested and wish to look at it. Tragically, not every person who is keen on review the blockchain for Bitcoin Billionaire Billionaire is really educated enough to peruse its code. Still more who really realize how to peruse and comprehend it would spare time if there were a simpler method to translate it. There are the individuals who have perceived this need and have decided to answer the call by giving blockchain pilgrims. These blockchain voyagers show the information found inside the blockchain in an outwardly engaging manner to make it simpler to peruse. Top Bitcoin Billionaire Block Explorers To Pay Attention To Here is a rundown of the best 6 blockchain voyagers that merit investigating.
Blockcypher is a Bitcoin Billionaire blockchain voyager that utilizations warm hues and is extremely simple on the eyes when seeing for significant stretches. Watchers can look into a Bitcoin Billionaire wallet's location and immediately observe the record for reserves sent and got through that wallet, just as its QR code. Blockcypher is additionally ready to show any unspent sums in the wallet, which numerous blockchain travelers can't do or think about a propelled include. You can likewise utilize Blcokcypher to see the square chains of different cryptographic forms of money, for example, Dogecoin and Litecoin.
Some may consider Bitcoin BillionaireChain excessively a lot to deal with outwardly, while others will appreciate the capacity to see a great deal of data without a moment's delay. This is on the grounds that Bitcoin BillionaireChain figures out how to fit a huge amount of information onto a solitary screen. This information incorporates Bitcoin Billionaire pools, arrange hubs, and markets. It ventures to show which individual square was mined by which mining pool on which organize. Bitcoin BillionaireChain offers a wallet administration too, which is a pleasant touch. With everything taken into account, this is a blockchain adventurer that has a ton to offer for the individuals who need to know the entirety of the subtleties when seeing a given blockchain.
Any individual who has their hands in cryptographic money in any genuine way will have just heard the name Blockr. This blockchain pilgrim is one of indisputably the most mind boggling and comprehensive of all the blockchain pioneer alternatives accessible. It shows a huge amount of data, however has an advantageous and simple to peruse position that clients love. Clients can choose a Bitcoin Billionaire trade and it will show a value file for Bitcoin Billionaire Billionaire on that trade. Blockr can aggregate the blockchain data utilizing a broad API which changes over the information into an assortment of diagrams containing the entirety of the data in a visual way that is anything but difficult to recognize and think about.
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TradeBlock is somewhat not quite the same as most blockchain pioneers. While it peruses the equivalent blockchain and pulls a similar data for review, it presents that information in an alternate way. The entirety of the data is gathered and designed into outer connections, every one of which prompts hashes for singular exchanges. It monitors the quantity of yields and information sources and shows them independently, which is a touch of a flighty insights that most fundamental clients aren't worried about, yet the more nerd clients will appreciate. It advantageously tracks the specific number of exchange affirmations progressively and continues refreshing as new exchanges are finished. TradeBlock is maybe the most inside and out and subtleties blockchain pioneer on the rundown, and it shows the data in a way that is ideal for the more bad-to-the-bone Bitcoin Billionaire lovers. Last Words On Bitcoin Billionaire Block Explorers Regardless of whether you're searching for a speedy and simple look at an irregular blockchain to straighten something up or you're a profoundly learned Bitcoin Billionaire dealer looking to min-max returns, there is a blockchain traveler on this rundown that has all that you need. https://www.cryptoerapro.com/bitcoin-billionaire/
Technical: A Brief History of Payment Channels: from Satoshi to Lightning Network
Who cares about political tweets from some random country's president when payment channels are a much more interesting and are actually capable of carrying value? So let's have a short history of various payment channel techs!
Generation 0: Satoshi's Broken nSequence Channels
Because Satoshi's Vision included payment channels, except his implementation sucked so hard we had to go fix it and added RBF as a by-product. Originally, the plan for nSequence was that mempools would replace any transaction spending certain inputs with another transaction spending the same inputs, but only if the nSequence field of the replacement was larger. Since 0xFFFFFFFF was the highest value that nSequence could get, this would mark a transaction as "final" and not replaceable on the mempool anymore. In fact, this "nSequence channel" I will describe is the reason why we have this weird rule about nLockTime and nSequence. nLockTime actually only works if nSequence is not 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. final. If nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF then nLockTime is ignored, because this if the "final" version of the transaction. So what you'd do would be something like this:
You go to a bar and promise the bartender to pay by the time the bar closes. Because this is the Bitcoin universe, time is measured in blockheight, so the closing time of the bar is indicated as some future blockheight.
For your first drink, you'd make a transaction paying to the bartender for that drink, paying from some coins you have. The transaction has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, and a starting nSequence of 0. You hand over the transaction and the bartender hands you your drink.
For your succeeding drink, you'd remake the same transaction, adding the payment for that drink to the transaction output that goes to the bartender (so that output keeps getting larger, by the amount of payment), and having an nSequence that is one higher than the previous one.
Eventually you have to stop drinking. It comes down to one of two possibilities:
You drink until the bar closes. Since it is now the nLockTime indicated in the transaction, the bartender is able to broadcast the latest transaction and tells the bouncers to kick you out of the bar.
You wisely consider the state of your liver. So you re-sign the last transaction with a "final" nSequence of 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. the maximum possible value it can have. This allows the bartender to get his or her funds immediately (nLockTime is ignored if nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF), so he or she tells the bouncers to let you out of the bar.
Now that of course is a payment channel. Individual payments (purchases of alcohol, so I guess buying coffee is not in scope for payment channels). Closing is done by creating a "final" transaction that is the sum of the individual payments. Sure there's no routing and channels are unidirectional and channels have a maximum lifetime but give Satoshi a break, he was also busy inventing Bitcoin at the time. Now if you noticed I called this kind of payment channel "broken". This is because the mempool rules are not consensus rules, and cannot be validated (nothing about the mempool can be validated onchain: I sigh every time somebody proposes "let's make block size dependent on mempool size", mempool state cannot be validated by onchain data). Fullnodes can't see all of the transactions you signed, and then validate that the final one with the maximum nSequence is the one that actually is used onchain. So you can do the below:
Become friends with Jihan Wu, because he owns >51% of the mining hashrate (he totally reorged Bitcoin to reverse the Binance hack right?).
Slip Jihan Wu some of the more interesting drinks you're ordering as an incentive to cooperate with you. So say you end up ordering 100 drinks, you split it with Jihan Wu and give him 50 of the drinks.
When the bar closes, Jihan Wu quickly calls his mining rig and tells them to mine the version of your transaction with nSequence 0. You know, that first one where you pay for only one drink.
Because fullnodes cannot validate nSequence, they'll accept even the nSequence=0 version and confirm it, immutably adding you paying for a single alcoholic drink to the blockchain.
The bartender, pissed at being cheated, takes out a shotgun from under the bar and shoots at you and Jihan Wu.
Jihan Wu uses his mystical chi powers (actually the combined exhaust from all of his mining rigs) to slow down the shotgun pellets, making them hit you as softly as petals drifting in the wind.
The bartender mutters some words, clothes ripping apart as he or she (hard to believe it could be a she but hey) turns into a bear, ready to maul you for cheating him or her of the payment for all the 100 drinks you ordered from him or her.
Steely-eyed, you stand in front of the bartender-turned-bear, daring him to touch you. You've watched Revenant, you know Leonardo di Caprio could survive a bear mauling, and if some posh actor can survive that, you know you can too. You make a pose. "Drunken troll logic attack!"
I think I got sidetracked here.
Bears are bad news.
You can't reasonably invoke "Satoshi's Vision" and simultaneously reject the Lightning Network because it's not onchain. Satoshi's Vision included a half-assed implementation of payment channels with nSequence, where the onchain transaction represented multiple logical payments, exactly what modern offchain techniques do (except modern offchain techniques actually work). nSequence (the field, but not its modern meaning) has been in Bitcoin since BitCoin For Windows Alpha 0.1.0. And its original intent was payment channels. You can't get nearer to Satoshi's Vision than being a field that Satoshi personally added to transactions on the very first public release of the BitCoin software, like srsly.
Miners can totally bypass mempool rules. In fact, the reason why nSequence has been repurposed to indicate "optional" replace-by-fee is because miners are already incentivized by the nSequence system to always follow replace-by-fee anyway. I mean, what do you think those drinks you passed to Jihan Wu are, other than the fee you pay him to mine a specific version of your transaction?
Satoshi made mistakes. The original design for nSequence is one of them. Today, we no longer use nSequence in this way. So diverging from Satoshi's original design is part and parcel of Bitcoin development, because over time, we learn new lessons that Satoshi never knew about. Satoshi was an important landmark in this technology. He will not be the last, or most important, that we will remember in the future: he will only be the first.
Incentive-compatible time-limited unidirectional channel; or, Satoshi's Vision, Fixed (if transaction malleability hadn't been a problem, that is). Now, we know the bartender will turn into a bear and maul you if you try to cheat the payment channel, and now that we've revealed you're good friends with Jihan Wu, the bartender will no longer accept a payment channel scheme that lets one you cooperate with a miner to cheat the bartender. Fortunately, Jeremy Spilman proposed a better way that would not let you cheat the bartender. First, you and the bartender perform this ritual:
You get some funds and create a transaction that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig between you and the bartender. You don't broadcast this yet: you just sign it and get its txid.
You create another transaction that spends the above transaction. This transaction (the "backoff") has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, plus one block. You sign it and give this backoff transaction (but not the above transaction) to the bartender.
The bartender signs the backoff and gives it back to you. It is now valid since it's spending a 2-of-2 of you and the bartender, and both of you have signed the backoff transaction.
Now you broadcast the first transaction onchain. You and the bartender wait for it to be deeply confirmed, then you can start ordering.
The above is probably vaguely familiar to LN users. It's the funding process of payment channels! The first transaction, the one that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig, is the funding transaction that backs the payment channel funds. So now you start ordering in this way:
For your first drink, you create a transaction spending the funding transaction output and sending the price of the drink to the bartender, with the rest returning to you.
You sign the transaction and pass it to the bartender, who serves your first drink.
For your succeeding drinks, you recreate the same transaction, adding the price of the new drink to the sum that goes to the bartender and reducing the money returned to you. You sign the transaction and give it to the bartender, who serves you your next drink.
At the end:
If the bar closing time is reached, the bartender signs the latest transaction, completing the needed 2-of-2 signatures and broadcasting this to the Bitcoin network. Since the backoff transaction is the closing time + 1, it can't get used at closing time.
If you decide you want to leave early because your liver is crying, you just tell the bartender to go ahead and close the channel (which the bartender can do at any time by just signing and broadcasting the latest transaction: the bartender won't do that because he or she is hoping you'll stay and drink more).
If you ended up just hanging around the bar and never ordering, then at closing time + 1 you broadcast the backoff transaction and get your funds back in full.
Now, even if you pass 50 drinks to Jihan Wu, you can't give him the first transaction (the one which pays for only one drink) and ask him to mine it: it's spending a 2-of-2 and the copy you have only contains your own signature. You need the bartender's signature to make it valid, but he or she sure as hell isn't going to cooperate in something that would lose him or her money, so a signature from the bartender validating old state where he or she gets paid less isn't going to happen. So, problem solved, right? Right? Okay, let's try it. So you get your funds, put them in a funding tx, get the backoff tx, confirm the funding tx... Once the funding transaction confirms deeply, the bartender laughs uproariously. He or she summons the bouncers, who surround you menacingly. "I'm refusing service to you," the bartender says. "Fine," you say. "I was leaving anyway;" You smirk. "I'll get back my money with the backoff transaction, and posting about your poor service on reddit so you get negative karma, so there!" "Not so fast," the bartender says. His or her voice chills your bones. It looks like your exploitation of the Satoshi nSequence payment channel is still fresh in his or her mind. "Look at the txid of the funding transaction that got confirmed." "What about it?" you ask nonchalantly, as you flip open your desktop computer and open a reputable blockchain explorer. What you see shocks you. "What the --- the txid is different! You--- you changed my signature?? But how? I put the only copy of my private key in a sealed envelope in a cast-iron box inside a safe buried in the Gobi desert protected by a clan of nomads who have dedicated their lives and their childrens' lives to keeping my private key safe in perpetuity!" "Didn't you know?" the bartender asks. "The components of the signature are just very large numbers. The sign of one of the signature components can be changed, from positive to negative, or negative to positive, and the signature will remain valid. Anyone can do that, even if they don't know the private key. But because Bitcoin includes the signatures in the transaction when it's generating the txid, this little change also changes the txid." He or she chuckles. "They say they'll fix it by separating the signatures from the transaction body. They're saying that these kinds of signature malleability won't affect transaction ids anymore after they do this, but I bet I can get my good friend Jihan Wu to delay this 'SepSig' plan for a good while yet. Friendly guy, this Jihan Wu, it turns out all I had to do was slip him 51 drinks and he was willing to mine a tx with the signature signs flipped." His or her grin widens. "I'm afraid your backoff transaction won't work anymore, since it spends a txid that is not existent and will never be confirmed. So here's the deal. You pay me 99% of the funds in the funding transaction, in exchange for me signing the transaction that spends with the txid that you see onchain. Refuse, and you lose 100% of the funds and every other HODLer, including me, benefits from the reduction in coin supply. Accept, and you get to keep 1%. I lose nothing if you refuse, so I won't care if you do, but consider the difference of getting zilch vs. getting 1% of your funds." His or her eyes glow. "GENUFLECT RIGHT NOW." Lesson learned?
Payback's a bitch.
Transaction malleability is a bitchier bitch. It's why we needed to fix the bug in SegWit. Sure, MtGox claimed they were attacked this way because someone kept messing with their transaction signatures and thus they lost track of where their funds went, but really, the bigger impetus for fixing transaction malleability was to support payment channels.
Yes, including the signatures in the hash that ultimately defines the txid was a mistake. Satoshi made a lot of those. So we're just reiterating the lesson "Satoshi was not an infinite being of infinite wisdom" here. Satoshi just gets a pass because of how awesome Bitcoin is.
CLTV-protected Spilman Channels
Using CLTV for the backoff branch. This variation is simply Spilman channels, but with the backoff transaction replaced with a backoff branch in the SCRIPT you pay to. It only became possible after OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY (CLTV) was enabled in 2015. Now as we saw in the Spilman Channels discussion, transaction malleability means that any pre-signed offchain transaction can easily be invalidated by flipping the sign of the signature of the funding transaction while the funding transaction is not yet confirmed. This can be avoided by simply putting any special requirements into an explicit branch of the Bitcoin SCRIPT. Now, the backoff branch is supposed to create a maximum lifetime for the payment channel, and prior to the introduction of OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY this could only be done by having a pre-signed nLockTime transaction. With CLTV, however, we can now make the branches explicit in the SCRIPT that the funding transaction pays to. Instead of paying to a 2-of-2 in order to set up the funding transaction, you pay to a SCRIPT which is basically "2-of-2, OR this singlesig after a specified lock time". With this, there is no backoff transaction that is pre-signed and which refers to a specific txid. Instead, you can create the backoff transaction later, using whatever txid the funding transaction ends up being confirmed under. Since the funding transaction is immutable once confirmed, it is no longer possible to change the txid afterwards.
Todd Micropayment Networks
The old hub-spoke model (that isn't how LN today actually works). One of the more direct predecessors of the Lightning Network was the hub-spoke model discussed by Peter Todd. In this model, instead of payers directly having channels to payees, payers and payees connect to a central hub server. This allows any payer to pay any payee, using the same channel for every payee on the hub. Similarly, this allows any payee to receive from any payer, using the same channel. Remember from the above Spilman example? When you open a channel to the bartender, you have to wait around for the funding tx to confirm. This will take an hour at best. Now consider that you have to make channels for everyone you want to pay to. That's not very scalable. So the Todd hub-spoke model has a central "clearing house" that transport money from payers to payees. The "Moonbeam" project takes this model. Of course, this reveals to the hub who the payer and payee are, and thus the hub can potentially censor transactions. Generally, though, it was considered that a hub would more efficiently censor by just not maintaining a channel with the payer or payee that it wants to censor (since the money it owned in the channel would just be locked uselessly if the hub won't process payments to/from the censored user). In any case, the ability of the central hub to monitor payments means that it can surveill the payer and payee, and then sell this private transactional data to third parties. This loss of privacy would be intolerable today. Peter Todd also proposed that there might be multiple hubs that could transport funds to each other on behalf of their users, providing somewhat better privacy. Another point of note is that at the time such networks were proposed, only unidirectional (Spilman) channels were available. Thus, while one could be a payer, or payee, you would have to use separate channels for your income versus for your spending. Worse, if you wanted to transfer money from your income channel to your spending channel, you had to close both and reshuffle the money between them, both onchain activities.
Poon-Dryja Lightning Network
Bidirectional two-participant channels. The Poon-Dryja channel mechanism has two important properties:
No time limit.
Both the original Satoshi and the two Spilman variants are unidirectional: there is a payer and a payee, and if the payee wants to do a refund, or wants to pay for a different service or product the payer is providing, then they can't use the same unidirectional channel. The Poon-Dryjam mechanism allows channels, however, to be bidirectional instead: you are not a payer or a payee on the channel, you can receive or send at any time as long as both you and the channel counterparty are online. Further, unlike either of the Spilman variants, there is no time limit for the lifetime of a channel. Instead, you can keep the channel open for as long as you want. Both properties, together, form a very powerful scaling property that I believe most people have not appreciated. With unidirectional channels, as mentioned before, if you both earn and spend over the same network of payment channels, you would have separate channels for earning and spending. You would then need to perform onchain operations to "reverse" the directions of your channels periodically. Secondly, since Spilman channels have a fixed lifetime, even if you never used either channel, you would have to periodically "refresh" it by closing it and reopening. With bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels, you may instead open some channels when you first begin managing your own money, then close them only after your lawyers have executed your last will and testament on how the money in your channels get divided up to your heirs: that's just two onchain transactions in your entire lifetime. That is the potentially very powerful scaling property that bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels allow. I won't discuss the transaction structure needed for Poon-Dryja bidirectional channels --- it's complicated and you can easily get explanations with cute graphics elsewhere. There is a weakness of Poon-Dryja that people tend to gloss over (because it was fixed very well by RustyReddit):
You have to store all the revocation keys of a channel. This implies you are storing 1 revocation key for every channel update, so if you perform millions of updates over your entire lifetime, you'd be storing several megabytes of keys, for only a single channel. RustyReddit fixed this by requiring that the revocation keys be generated from a "Seed" revocation key, and every key is just the application of SHA256 on that key, repeatedly. For example, suppose I tell you that my first revocation key is SHA256(SHA256(seed)). You can store that in O(1) space. Then for the next revocation, I tell you SHA256(seed). From SHA256(key), you yourself can compute SHA256(SHA256(seed)) (i.e. the previous revocation key). So you can remember just the most recent revocation key, and from there you'd be able to compute every previous revocation key. When you start a channel, you perform SHA256 on your seed for several million times, then use the result as the first revocation key, removing one layer of SHA256 for every revocation key you need to generate. RustyReddit not only came up with this, but also suggested an efficient O(log n) storage structure, the shachain, so that you can quickly look up any revocation key in the past in case of a breach. People no longer really talk about this O(n) revocation storage problem anymore because it was solved very very well by this mechanism.
Another thing I want to emphasize is that while the Lightning Network paper and many of the earlier presentations developed from the old Peter Todd hub-and-spoke model, the modern Lightning Network takes the logical conclusion of removing a strict separation between "hubs" and "spokes". Any node on the Lightning Network can very well work as a hub for any other node. Thus, while you might operate as "mostly a payer", "mostly a forwarding node", "mostly a payee", you still end up being at least partially a forwarding node ("hub") on the network, at least part of the time. This greatly reduces the problems of privacy inherent in having only a few hub nodes: forwarding nodes cannot get significantly useful data from the payments passing through them, because the distance between the payer and the payee can be so large that it would be likely that the ultimate payer and the ultimate payee could be anyone on the Lightning Network. Lessons learned?
We can decentralize if we try hard enough!
"Hubs bad" can be made "hubs good" if everybody is a hub.
Smart people can solve problems. It's kinda why they're smart.
After LN, there's also the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels (DMC). This post is long enough as-is, LOL. But for now, it uses a novel "decrementing nSequence channel", using the new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence (not the broken one originally by Satoshi). It actually uses multiple such "decrementing nSequence" constructs, terminating in a pair of Spilman channels, one in both directions (thus "duplex"). Maybe I'll discuss it some other time. The realization that channel constructions could actually hold more channel constructions inside them (the way the Decker-Wattenhofer puts a pair of Spilman channels inside a series of "decrementing nSequence channels") lead to the further thought behind Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer channel factories. Basically, you could host multiple two-participant channel constructs inside a larger multiparticipant "channel" construct (i.e. host multiple channels inside a factory). Further, we have the Decker-Russell-Osuntokun or "eltoo" construction. I'd argue that this is "nSequence done right". I'll write more about this later, because this post is long enough. Lessons learned?
Bitcoin offchain scaling is more powerful than you ever thought.
Did anyone else get very long email with the subject "【MTGOX】同意事項/Terms of Consent" today?
This was the full email. There were also 2 PDF attachments. The only part I have changed is where I've redacted my "creditor number". Please discuss what you think about it. (English follows Japanese) 債権者様（債権者番号：XXXXXXXXXXX） 本メールは、株式会社MTGOX（以下「MTGOX」といいます。）の破産手続において破産債権の届出をしたものの、MTGOXの民事再生手続（以下「本民事再生手続」といいます。）において、再生債権の届出をしておらず、MTGOXのデータベースに存在した残高が自認債権として認められた債権者の方にお送りしています。 貴殿/貴社について認められた自認債権については、添付PDFファイルに記載しておりますのでご確認ください。 本民事再生手続において、届出債権者の方には、弁済を含めた諸手続を円滑に進めるため、本民事再生手続に関する同意事項に同意いただいております。しかし、貴殿/貴社は債権届出をしていないことから、未だ当該同意事項へ同意いただいておりません。弁済を含めた今後の手続を円滑に進めるためには、貴殿/貴社にも同様の同意事項に対して同意していただく必要があります。 そこで、本メールの末尾に記載しました「民事再生手続に関する同意事項」又は本メールに添付しました「民事再生手続に関する同意事項」（内容は同一です。）をご確認いただき、内容に同意いただける場合には、下記の文言を記載して、本メールに直接返信してください。 「私は、MTGOXの民事再生手続について、再生管財人から送付された「民事再生手続に関する同意事項」について同意及び表明いたします。」 再生管財人は、今後も、東京地方裁判所と協議しながら、適切な民事再生手続の遂行に努めてまいりますので、ご理解ご協力の程宜しくお願い申し上げます。 再生債務者株式会社MTGOX 再生管財人弁護士小林信明 To creditor (creditor number: XXXXXXXXXXX) You have received this email because you are a creditor ofMtGox Co., Ltd. (“MtGox”) who filed a proof of bankruptcy claim(s) under the previous bankruptcy proceedings forMtGox but did not file a proof of rehabilitation claim(s) under the civil rehabilitation proceedings for MtGox (the “Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings”) and whose remaining balance on the MtGox database was approved by the Rehabilitation Trustee as a self-approved rehabilitation claim(s) (i.e., a rehabilitation claim that was not filed but accepted by the trustee voluntarily in accordance with the Civil Rehabilitation Act). Your self-approved rehabilitation claim(s) are detailed in the attached PDF file for your review. In the Civil Rehabilitation Proceeding, the rehabilitation creditors who filed their proofs of rehabilitation claim agreed to the terms of consent regarding the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings to proceed smoothly with various procedures including repayment. However, since you have not filed a claim, you have not yet agreed to these terms of consent. In order to facilitate various proceedings, your consent to the terms is required. Accordingly, we hereby stated the “Terms of Consent Regarding the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings” at the end of this email, as well as attached the same to this email. Please carefully read the terms therein, and if you agree to the terms, please reply to this email and state the sentence below in the body of your reply. “I/We hereby agree to and represent as set forth in the “Terms of Consent Regarding the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings” sent by the rehabilitation trustee, in relation to the civil rehabilitation proceedings for MtGox Co., Ltd.” The rehabilitation trustee will continue to make an effort to conduct the Civil Rehabilitation Proceeding appropriately and in consultation with the Tokyo District Court, and the rehabilitation trustee would appreciate the understanding and cooperation of all concerned parties. Rehabilitation Debtor: MtGox Co., Ltd. Rehabilitation Trustee: Nobuaki Kobayashi, Attorney-at-law 事件番号 平成２９年（再）第３５号 / Case Number 2017 (sai) No. 35 再生債務者 株式会社MTGOX / Rehabilitation Debtor: MTGOX Co., Ltd. 民事再生手続に関する同意事項 Terms of Consent Regarding the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings 1. 私/当社は、上記債権者番号の自認債権者本人であり、私/当社が届け出た情報は真実、正確かつ完全であること。その違反に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害、損失、債務、コスト又は費用（以下「損害等」という。）について、株式会社MTGOX（以下「MTGOX」という。）及びMTGOXの民事再生手続（東京地方裁判所平成29年（再）第35号。以下「本民事再生手続」という。）における管財人（その代理及び補佐を含み、以下「再生管財人」という。）は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 I am/We are the creditor of self-approved rehabilitation claims that has the above creditor number, and I/we represent that the information that I/we have provided therein is true, accurate, and complete. MtGox Co., Ltd. (“MTGOX”) and the trustee (including deputy trustees and assistant trustees; the “Rehabilitation Trustee”) of the MTGOX civil rehabilitation proceedings (Tokyo District Court; 2017 (sai) Case No. 35; the “Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings”) are not liable in any respect for any damage, loss, liability, cost or expense (“Damages”) arising out of or in connection with any breach of such representation, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 2. 再生管財人の故意によらず、ビットコイン及びビットコインから分岐した他の仮想通貨（以下「フォークコイン」といい、ビットコインと総称して「ビットコイン等」という。）の技術上の問題・障害等に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等（ビットコイン等又は金銭による弁済を受領できないことによる損害を含むが、これに限られない。）について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with any technical issue, impediment, or other ground, in the absence of without willful misconduct by the Rehabilitation Trustee, regarding Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency split from Bitcoin (a “Fork Coin”; collectively with Bitcoin, “Bitcoin, Etc.”) (including, but not limited to, any damage related to payments in Bitcoin, Etc. or cash not being received), and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 3. 私/当社は、本書式のダウンロードその他のために必要なコンピュータ等の機器、ソフトウェアその他のアプリケーション、通信回線その他の通信環境等の準備（必要なアプリケーションのインストールを含む。）及び維持、並びに自らの利用環境に応じたコンピュータ・ウイルスの感染の防止、不正アクセス及び情報漏洩の防止等のセキュリティ対策を、自らの費用と責任において行うこと。本項に定める事項の違反に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。私/当社は、MTGOX及び再生管財人が利用環境を推奨した場合であっても動作保証は行わないことを認識し、これに同意していること。 I/We will, at my/our expense and responsibility, setup and maintain computers and other equipment, software and other applications, telecommunication lines and other telecommunication environments, among others, necessary to download this form (including installing necessary applications) and, in accordance with my/our use environment, take security measures, such as preventing infection by computer viruses, unauthorized access and information divulgence. MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with any breach of any matter stipulated in this paragraph, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. I/We acknowledge and agree that notwithstanding that MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee have recommended a use environment its operation is not guaranteed in any respect. 4. 私/当社は、自らの責任において、MTGOXのビットコイン取引所に登録していたユーザーネーム、メールアドレス及びパスワード、MTGOXの破産手続（東京地方裁判所平成26年（フ）第3830号。以下「本破産手続」という。）において債権者情報として登録した連絡先メールアドレス等私/当社であることの確認のために必要な情報及びこれに関連するもの（以下、総称して「パスワード等」という。）を管理、保管するものとし、パスワード等を第三者に利用させたり、貸与、譲渡、名義変更、売買その他処分をしたりしないこと。再生管財人は、私/当社のパスワード等により行われた一切の行為を、私/当社の行為とみなすことができ、パスワード等の管理不十分、使用上の過誤、漏洩、第三者の使用、盗用等に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 I/We will, at my/our responsibility, manage and store user names, email address and passwords registered on the MTGOX Bitcoin exchange; the contact address registered as creditor information in the bankruptcy proceedings (Tokyo District Court; 2014 (fu) Case No. 3830; the “Bankruptcy Proceedings”); or any other information necessary for identity confirmation and anything related thereto (collectively, the “Passwords”) and will neither permit any third party to use the Passwords nor lend, assign, transfer ownership, trade, or handle the Passwords in any other manner. The Rehabilitation Trustee may deem all acts conducted with my/our Passwords as mine/our act; and MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with insufficient management, erroneous use, divulgence, third party use, illegal use, or otherwise of the Passwords, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 5. 私/当社は、再生管財人が定めている又は今後定める、再生管財人が用意した方式・方法による届出・通知及びこれに関連する事項を行う際のルール（今後の変更を含む。）を理解した上でこれに従うものとし、当該ルールに違反し、又は違反しようとしたことに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 I/We will familiarize myself/ourselves with and follow current rules or future rules (as amended from time to time) for any filing/notifying with the form/method the Rehabilitation Trustee provided and anything related thereto stipulated, by the Rehabilitation Trustee; and MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with any breach of or any attempted breach of the rules, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 6. 他のウェブサイトからMTGOXのウェブサイトへのリンクが提供されている場合においても、MTGOXのウェブサイト以外のウェブサイト及びそこから得られる情報並びにそれに起因又は関連して生じる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any website other than MTGOX’s website, any information obtained therefrom, and any Damages arising out of or in connection with the same, notwithstanding that MTGOX’s website may be linked on another website, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 7. 私/当社と他の再生債権者その他の者との間において生じた取引、連絡、紛争等については、私/当社の責任において処理及び解決するものとし、かかる事項及びそれに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 I/we will, at my/our responsibility, handle and resolve any and all transactions, communication, disputes, among others, arising between me/us, another rehabilitation creditor, or any other person; and MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any relevant matter and any Damages arising out thereof or in connection therewith, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 8. 法律、政令、法令、命令、通達、条例、ガイドラインその他の規制（以下「法令等」という。）又は消費税を含む税制の将来の制定又は変更に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社は、MTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。また、法令等又は消費税を含む税制の将来の制定又は変更が過去に遡及した場合に、これに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with a future enactment or amendment to a law, cabinet order, ordinance, order, directive, bylaw, guideline, or any other regulation (“Laws”) or the tax system, including consumption tax; and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. Further, MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with any future enactment or amendment with a retroactive effect on Laws or the tax system including consumption tax, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 9. 裁判所又は再生管財人が、再生管財人が私/当社のメールアドレスと認めるメールアドレス宛に電子メールにより通知を送信することによって、私/当社に対する適法な通知があったものとみなすこと。当該メールアドレスの不備等（メールアドレスの記載漏れを含む。）に起因又は関連して、当該メールアドレスに宛てた電子メールを送信することができず又は電子メールが到達しない場合（到達が確認できない場合を含む。）であっても同様とすること。 An appropriate notification is deemed to have been made to me/us if the court or the Rehabilitation Trustee sends a notification via email to the email address which is considered to be my/our email address by the Rehabilitation Trustee. The same applies notwithstanding that, due to, or in connection with, an inadequacy, inaccurateness or incompleteness, or any other issue (including omission of the email address), in or with that email address, an email addressed to that email address cannot be sent or the email is not delivered including where receipt is unconfirmed. 10.私/当社が本届出書を利用して行った再生債権の届出の内容について、再生管財人が裁判所その他必要な第三者に提出すること。 The Rehabilitation Trustee may submit the proof of rehabilitation claim filed by me/us using this form to the court and other third parties as necessary. 11.私/当社は、本民事再生手続においてパスワード等を用いて入手することができる一切の情報（他の再生債権者に関する情報を含むが、これに限られない。）を、本民事再生手続における権利行使の目的にのみ使用することとし、第三者に提供、開示又は漏洩しないこと。 I/We will use information (including, but not limited to, information related to any other rehabilitation creditors) acquired by using the Passwords in the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings only for the purpose of exercising rights in the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings and will not provide, disclose, or divulge such information to any third party. 12.私/当社の本民事再生手続における議決権の額は、再生管財人が提示する次の為替レートによって、円換算されて評価されること。 The amount of my/our voting rights in the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings is computed through conversion to Japanese Yen (JPY) using the following exchange rates provided by the Rehabilitation Trustee: (a) 外国通貨 平成30年6月21日（日本時間）の東京外国為替市場・電信為替売相場として三菱UFJリサーチ＆コンサルティング株式会社が公表した相場 Foreign currency: the exchange rates publicly announced by Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting Co., Ltd. as the Tokyo Foreign Exchange Market / Telegraphic Transfer Selling Rate on June 21, 2018 (Japan Time) (b) ビットコイン 平成30年6月21日23時59分（日本時間）時点のCoinDeskが発表する米国ドル建てのビットコイン相場を(a)の相場により日本円に換算した金額（1 BTC＝6,724.57米国ドル＝749,318.83円。1米国ドル＝111.43円） Bitcoin: the amount obtained by converting the Bitcoin price denominated in USD announced by CoinDesk at 23:59 on June 21, 2018 (Japan Time) to JPY using the exchange rate referred to in the above (a). (1 BTC＝6,724.57 USD = 749,318.83 JPY; 1 USD = 111.43 JPY) (c) ビットコインキャッシュ 平成30年6月21日23時59分（日本時間）時点のCoinDeskが発表する米国ドル建てのビットコインキャッシュ相場を(a)の相場により日本円に換算した金額（1 BCH＝874.82米国ドル＝97,481.19円。1米国ドル＝111.43円） Bitcoin Cash: the amount obtained by converting the Bitcoin Cash Price denominated in USD announced by CoinDesk at 23:59 on June 21, 2018 (Japan time) to JPY using the exchange rate referred to in the above (a). (1 BCH = 874.82 USD = 97,481.19 JPY; 1 USD = 111.43 JPY) (d) その他の仮想通貨 金額は未定 Amounts for other cryptocurrencies: not determined 13.本民事再生手続においては、ビットコイン等の返還請求権は非金銭債権として取り扱われ、当該返還請求権に係る遅延損害金は生じないこととすること。 In the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings, the right to claim for return of Bitcoin Etc. is treated as a non-monetary claim, and no delay damages pertaining to such right to claim for return will accrue. 14.再生管財人の私/当社への弁済（金銭及びビットコイン等の弁済を含む。）及びこれに関連する行為が、日本国の外国為替及び外国貿易法、米国財務省の金融制裁（OFAC規制）その他私/当社に関して適用のあるいかなる法令等にも抵触しないこと。再生管財人は、再生管財人の実施する私/当社への弁済及びこれに関連する行為が、日本国外の法令等に抵触しないことをいかなる意味においても保証しないこと。これらの法令等への抵触に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。再生管財人の私/当社への弁済に起因又は関連して私/当社に課される一切の公租公課（当該弁済の態様によって公租公課の額が増減する場合を含む。）は、私/当社が負担し、当該公租公課又はその増減に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 Any payment (including payment of cash and Bitcoin Etc.) to me/us by the Rehabilitation Trustee and any act related thereto do not conflict with the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act of Japan, the United States Department of the Treasury’s financial sanctions (OFAC regulations) and any other applicable Laws. The Rehabilitation Trustee does not guarantee, in any respect, that payment to me/us by the Rehabilitation Trustee and any act related thereto do not conflict with Laws outside of Japan. MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with any conflict with any applicable Laws, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. I/We will bear all taxes and other public charges (including any increases or decreases in the amount of taxes and other public charges due to the manner of the payment) levied on me/us arising out of or in connection with any payment to me/us by the Rehabilitation Trustee; and MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with such taxes and other public charges and increase or decrease thereof, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 15.再生管財人が、仮想通貨取引所（日本国内の仮想通貨交換業者を含むが、これに限られない。以下同じ。）又は金融機関（資金移動業者を含む。以下同じ。）に開設された再生債権者の口座に対して弁済金を振り込む場合、私/当社は、再生管財人の指定する方法により届け出た氏名・名称と同一名義の仮想通貨取引所又は金融機関の口座で受け取ること。 If the Rehabilitation Trustee transfers the money for distribution to an account of a rehabilitation creditor opened at a cryptocurrency exchange (including, but not limited to, cryptocurrency exchangers in Japan; the same applies below) or a financial institution (including fund transfer operators; the same applies below), I/we will receive the same in the account at the cryptocurrency exchange or the financial institution under the same name as that name I/we notified in the manner designated by the Rehabilitation Trustee. 16.私/当社が再生管財人の指定する仮想通貨取引所に開設した口座でビットコイン等及び/又は金銭で弁済を受ける場合には、次の各事項。 If I/we receive payment in Bitcoin Etc. and/or in cash in an account opened at the cryptocurrency exchange designated by the Rehabilitation Trustee, the following applies: (a) 私/当社は、送付先等の必要情報を正確に提供しなければならず、その誤りから結果的にビットコイン等及び/又は金銭を受領できなかったとしても、それに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 I/we must accurately provide necessary information about my/our accounts, among others, and, notwithstanding that an error therein results in my/our not receiving Bitcoin, Etc. or cash, MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with such non-receipt, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. (b) 再生管財人がビットコイン等及び/又は金銭を当該仮想通貨取引所に交付した時点で弁済が完了し、MTGOX及び再生管財人の弁済義務は消滅するものとし、再生管財人による当該仮想通貨取引所へのビットコイン等及び/又は金銭の交付後、私/当社が何らかの理由（仮想通貨のブロックチェーンの不具合、仮想通貨取引所のシステムの不具合を含むが、これらに限られない。）により仮想通貨取引所からのビットコイン等及び/又は金銭の適切な弁済を受けることができなかったとしても、それに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 The instant the Rehabilitation Trustee sends Bitcoin, Etc. or cash to the cryptocurrency exchange, the payment by MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee is deemed complete, and the payment obligation of MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee is deemed to be discharged; and, after Bitcoin Etc. or cash has been sent to the cryptocurrency exchange by the Rehabilitation Trustee, notwithstanding that I/we fail to receive appropriate payment of Bitcoin Etc. or cash from the cryptocurrency exchange for any reason (including, but not limited to, a malfunction in the blockchain of the cryptocurrency or a system malfunction at the cryptocurrency exchange), MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with such failure, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 17.私/当社が金融機関の口座において金銭で弁済を受ける場合には、次の各事項。 If I/we receive cash in an account at a financial institution, the following applies: (a) 私/当社は、送付先等の必要情報を正確に提供しなければならず、その誤りから結果的に金銭を受領できなかったとしても、それに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 I/We must accurately provide necessary information about my/our accounts, among others, and, notwithstanding that an error therein results in my/our not receiving cash, MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with that, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. (b) 取扱通貨の種別や送金元銀行との取引の有無、日本国内外の法令等及び各金融機関の内部基準への抵触並びに諸手数料の発生その他要因に基づき弁済金を受領できなかったとしても、それに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 Notwithstanding that I/we fail to receive cash for distribution due to unavailability of the designated currencies or transactions with the designated financial institutions, any conflict with Laws in or outside Japan or an internal standard of any relevant financial institution, various processing charges and fees, or any other causes, MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with that, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. (c) 諸手数料等を差し引いた金額の弁済金を受け取る場合であっても、当該諸手数料等に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 Notwithstanding that I/we have received payment from which various processing charges and fees have been deducted, MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with such processing charges and fees, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 18.フォークコインに係る再生債権の届出については、ビットコインに関する再生債権の届出をもって、届け出たビットコインの数に応じて、フォークコインに係る再生債権についても届け出たものとみなし、再生債権者は独自にフォークコインに係る再生債権を届け出ないこと。再生債権の届出があるとみなされるフォークコインは、通常の方法により売却可能であり、かつ、財産的価値のあるものに限られ、それ以外のフォークコインについては、再生債権の届出があるとは認められないこと。なお、ビットコインキャッシュは再生債権の届出があるとみなされるフォークコインに含まれること。 The filing of a proof of rehabilitation claim for a Fork Coin is deemed to have been made in proportion to the number of the filed Bitcoin for which the proof of rehabilitation claim has been filed, and the rehabilitation creditor cannot file its own proof of rehabilitation claim for a Fork Coin. Fork Coins that are deemed to have been filed are limited to those that can be sold in an ordinary manner and that have property value, and no other Fork Coin will be recognized as being deemed to have been filed. Bitcoin Cash is included in Fork Coins that are deemed to have been filed. 19.私/当社が再生管財人により認められた債権を契約により第三者に譲渡する場合には、当該譲渡契約の準拠法は日本法にするものとし、MTGOX及び再生管財人に当該譲渡を対抗するためには、日本法に基づく債権譲渡の対抗要件その他再生管財人が指定する要件を備えることが必要であること。再生管財人は、各国の法令等の定め及び債権譲渡契約で定められた準拠法の定めにかかわらず、日本法のみに基づき債権譲渡契約の有効性及び対抗要件具備の有無を判断すること。再生管財人が日本法に基づき債権譲渡契約の有効性及び対抗要件具備の有無を判断することに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 If I/we intend to transfer or assign any rehabilitation claim that was approved by the Rehabilitation Trustee to any third party pursuant to an agreement, the governing law for such agreement shall be Japanese law, and the perfection requirements in accordance with the relevant Japanese law and any other requirements specified by the Rehabilitation Trustee shall be fully satisfied to perfect such claim transfer or assignment against MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee. The Rehabilitation Trustee will determine the validity of such claim transfer or assignment and perfection thereof pursuant only to Japanese law, irrespective of any statute in each country’s Laws and any governing law provided for in such agreement. MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with the Rehabilitation Trustee determining the validity of such claim transfer or assignment and perfection thereof pursuant to Japanese law, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 20.再生管財人による債権譲渡の承認が、債権譲渡の承認に必要な手続（譲渡人及び譲受人の本人確認、譲渡を証明する文書の検証を含むが、これらに限られない。）その他の理由により遅滞した場合であっても、これに起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私/当社はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 Notwithstanding that approval by the Rehabilitation Trustee of a claim transfer or assignment is delayed by the procedures necessary for approval of a claim transfer or assignment (including, but not limited to, identity check of the transferoassignor and transferee/assignee and verification of documents proving transfer or assignment) or any other reason, MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with such delay, and I/we will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 21.ある再生債権を譲渡する場合、当該再生債権の全部を譲渡することとし、その一部のみを譲渡しないこと。 If a rehabilitation claim is transferred or assigned, all of such rehabilitation claim, not part thereof, shall be transferred or assigned. 22.ビットコイン等に係る再生債権を譲渡する場合には、対象となるビットコイン及び当該ビットコインから分岐したフォークコインを併せて譲渡するものとし、ビットコイン又はフォークコインに係る再生債権を個別に譲渡しないこと。 If a rehabilitation claim pertaining to Bitcoin, Etc. is transferred or assigned, the Bitcoin subject to such transfer or assignment and the Fork Coin split from such Bitcoin shall be transferred or assigned collectively, and a rehabilitation claim pertaining to Bitcoin or Fork Coin shall not be transferred or assigned individually. 23.情報の取扱いに関する同意事項 Matters of consent related to information management (a) 再生管財人が、以下の情報（個人情報の保護に関する法律（平成15年法律第57号）第2条第1項により定義される個人情報その他識別された又は識別可能な自然人に関する一切の情報を含むが、これに限られない。以下同じ。）を収集すること。 The Rehabilitation Trustee may collect the information below (including, but not limited to, personal information defined under Article 2(1) of the Act on the Protection of Personal Information (Act No. 57 of 2003) and any other information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person; the same applies below) i. 私/当社が再生管財人に提供する情報 information that I/we provided to the Rehabilitation Trustee; ii. 私/当社以外の情報源（身元証明サービス機関を含むが、これに限られない。）から収集する私/当社の情報 information concerning me/us provided by an information source (including, but not limited to, organizations providing ID verification services) other than myself/ourselves; iii. 本破産手続において、私/当社が本破産手続の破産管財人に提供した一切の情報 all information that I/we provided to the bankruptcy trustee of the Bankruptcy Proceedings; iv. 私/当社が、MTGOXに提供した一切の情報 all information that I/we provided to MTGOX; and v. その他再生管財人が適正な方法により取得し、又は今後取得する情報 any other information acquired, or to be acquired going forward, by the Rehabilitation Trustee using an appropriate method (b) 再生管財人が、収集した上記(a)の情報を、以下の目的で日本国内外で管理及び利用すること。 The Rehabilitation Trustee may manage and use collected information stated in (a) above for the purposes below in and outside of Japan. i. 再生債権の届出、調査、再生計画の立案、再生計画に基づく弁済その他の本民事再生手続の適切な遂行 filing proofs of rehabilitation claim, investigations of rehabilitation claims, drafting a rehabilitation plan, distribution in accordance with a rehabilitation plan, or any other appropriate execution of the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings; ii. 公益的な目的のためにする、日本国内外の行政官庁・捜査機関・司法機関への上記(a)の情報の開示又は提供 disclosing or providing information stated in (a) above to any government office, any investigation agency, or any judicial agency in or outside of Japan for the purpose of serving public interests; and iii. その他上記目的に付随する目的 any other purposes incidental to the above purposes. (c) 再生管財人が、上記(b)の目的のため、上記(a)の情報を、第三者（以下の者を含むが、これらに限られない。）に開示又は提供する場合があること。これらの第三者には、①米国、②カナダ、③イギリス、④私/当社が所在する国及び⑤私/当社が再生債権の弁済の受領のために利用する金融機関又は仮想通貨取引所が所在する国に、それぞれ所在する第三者が含まれること。 The Rehabilitation Trustee may disclose or provide information stated in (a) above for the purpose of (b) above to any third party (including, but not limited to, the persons below). The third parties hereunder include third parties located in (i) the United States of America, (ii) Canada, (iii) the United Kingdom, (iv) the country in which I am/we are located, and (v) the country in which the financial institution or cryptocurrency exchange that I/we use to receive payment for the rehabilitation claim is located. 東京地方裁判所その他裁判所（日本国外の裁判所を含む。）、本民事再生手続及び本破産手続（併せて以下「本民事再生手続等」という。）における調査委員（その代理及び補佐を含む。）その他の機関、日本国内外の行政官庁・捜査機関、管財人が本民事再生手続等の遂行のために依頼する法律事務所及びデロイトトーマツコンサルティング合同会社等の専門家、金融機関、仮想通貨取引所、他の再生債権者、Eメールサービスプロバイダー、及び詐欺行為検証サービスプロバイダー Tokyo District Court and other courts (including courts outside of Japan); the Examiner (chosa iin) (including deputy examiners and assistant examiners) and other officers or bodies in the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings or the Bankruptcy Proceedings (collectively, the “Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings, Etc.”); government offices and investigation agencies in or outside of Japan; counsel and experts including the law firms and Deloitte Tohmatsu Consulting LLC. which the trustee has retained to proceed with the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings, Etc.; financial institutions; cryptocurrency exchangers; other rehabilitation creditors; email service providers; and fraudulent act verification service providers (d) 管財人は、本民事再生手続等に必要な限りで私/当社のブラウザ設定により影響されない特定の永続クッキーを使用する可能性があること。 The trustee might, to the extent necessary for the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings, Etc., use a specific permanent cookies setting that will be unaffected by my/our browser setting. 24.私/当社の再生債権に関する事項が、オンライン上で他の再生債権者による閲覧の対象となり、また、東京地方裁判所において本民事再生手続の利害関係人の閲覧及び謄写の対象となる場合があること。 The information regarding my/our rehabilitation claim may be available online to other rehabilitation creditors, and may be subject to the inspection and copying thereof at the Tokyo District Court by an interested party in the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings. 25.私が死亡した場合、本民事再生手続との関係では、再生管財人が、日本の法令等及び実務に従って、相続に関する各種関係資料の提出を求め、また、誰を再生債権者として取り扱うかについて判断すること、及び、当該判断に起因又は関連して生じるあらゆる損害等について、MTGOX及び再生管財人は一切の責任を負わず、私及び私の相続人はMTGOX及び再生管財人に対して当該損害等に関して損害賠償請求、補償請求その他一切の請求をしないこと。 For the purpose of the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings, in the event that I died, the Rehabilitation Trustee may, in accordance with the Laws and practices of Japan, request for relevant evidence and explanation on the inheritance and determine who to be treated as the rehabilitation creditor; and MTGOX and the Rehabilitation Trustee are not liable in any respect for any Damages arising out of or in connection with such determination, and I and my heir(s)/successor(s) will not make any claim for damages or compensation, or make any other claim with respect to such Damages against MTGOX or the Rehabilitation Trustee. 26.本同意事項は日本語を正文とすること。本同意事項につき作成される英語の翻訳文は参考にすぎず、日本語と英語との間で相互に内容の相違、矛盾がある場合であっても、日本語のみが効力を有すること。 The governing language of these terms of consent shall be the Japanese language. The English-language translation thereof is merely for reference purposes only; and notwithstanding any discrepancy or contradiction in details between the Japanese-language original and the English-language translation the Japanese-language original shall prevail. 27. 本民事再生手続等及びこれに関連又は付随して生じる一切の請求又は紛争は日本法に準拠し、東京地方裁判所を専属的合意管轄裁判所とすること。 The Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings, Etc. and all claims and disputes arising out of, in connection with, or incidental to, the Civil Rehabilitation Proceedings, Etc. are governed by Japanese law, and the Tokyo District Court shall have exclusive jurisdiction. 28. 再生管財人が、本同意事項を必要に応じ変更すること。但し、再生管財人が変更についてwww.mtgox.comにおいて告知したものに限る。 The Rehabilitation Trustee will, as necessary, amend these terms of consent. However, amendments are limited to those that the Rehabilitation Trustee has notified on the website www.mtgox.com.
List of Cardano accomplishments - I just read Cardano has only released "a wallet".
Hi, I'm a super Cardano fan, and I have this idea that I want to share and see if you think it's a good idea and want to collaborate. Basically, the idea is to elaborate a list of things Cardano has accomplished, to have for ourselves and to share as an answer to false claims like the one in my title. I'm assuming some of those are not trolls but instead uninformed people. Maybe later we could develop a list of things that are in progress, separate, because I really think most people don't grasp the scope of the ecosystem that they are building. I propose to elaborate here that first list of already accomplished and finished things. I can start and then edit with your comments. I think it would be nice to have them in chronological order too, and a brief (5-10 words) explanation or subtitle to each thing in the list. I'm not technical and don't have much memorized, so I can start with very little. This is much more about collaborating than my Cardano knowledge. Also I'm Spanish, so my English is far from perfect. Feel free to copy paste and make it your own. My goal is to come up with a version of it that is as complete, accurate and simple as possible, to share. It could be an image too once is finished.
40+ Peer reviewed academic papers
20+ accepted in major top-tier conventions and gone through peer review.
These are an open source gift to our space
The objective is to study first, research, elaborate theory, have it reviewed and improve it, then build from the ground up from that
About Proof of Stake
Solved how to achieve a network as probably secure (at least) as Bitcoin's network with it's Proof of Work
Solved how to achieve decentralization of 1000 pools (or more)
Solved how to operate a pool with around 100$ of hardware
Solved how to have a network that consumes in it's totality an estimate somewhere between an average hotel and an average house
Solved how to delegate voting, vote as a community who gets paid for doing what
Solved how to be an open community that anyone is able to propose changes and can be heard
Solved how to increase speed as more users use the network
Paper wallet support
The first Cardano testnet
Write smart contracts easily on Cardano from many other programming languages
Executable form of the semantics of the EVM
Specified in the K-framework
The second Cardano testnet, a virtual machine (VM)
Makes it easier to write secure smart contracts on Cardano by supporting direct compilation from Solidity and more languages
Serves as a uniform lower-level platform for translating and executing smart contracts from higher-level languages
Rust programming language based codebase for light client wallets
Yoroi and ADALite light wallets use Icarus
Very secure and light weight
Ledger S and Trezor support
Chrome, Brave and Firefox extensions. Android and iOS apps
Marlowe programming language
Marlowe was designed to be used by people working in finance and different other fields that requires no experience in programming
Marlowe free online course in Udemy
Plutus programming language
Plutus requires programming knowledge but it allows you to create complex smart contracts using programming paradigms
Plutus programming language digital book
Plutus free online course in Udemy
Locally training engineers to develop Apps for Cardano
Successfully locally trained many (1st batch was 30) engineers in developing nations
Prepaid card in South Korea
Developed by Metaps+, a subsidiary of Emurgo and Metaps
With it people can trade Cardano (ADA) at over 30,000 merchants and outlets in South Korea
Emurgo's partnership with Y2X
Y2X is a leading digital merchant bank for the decentralized economy
Emurgo became the anchor investor of Y2X
Cardano as the protocol for all portfolio firms within the Y2X management to promote the the technology, particularly in the STOs regulated field
Emurgo's partnership with dLab
For it's startup accelerator and venture studio that explores new topics in decentralization and blockchain technology
Powered by SOSV and Emurgo from Cardano
Tangem cards partnership
This are nfc cards to recieve, carry and spend ADA paired with your phone
An enterprise solution to do all kinds of data what Bitcoin did to money
Decentralization, privacy, control, security and trust are it's core characteristics
Being built to have interoperability with Cardano, this will eventually provide on ramps and access opportunities for adoption on Cardano
• Cardano uses two parallel development clients, one in Haskell and another in Rust. Two different teams. This helps have a faster, more reliable development and also each client is better for different uses. • Cardano operates from 3 different entities. IOHK, Emurgo and The Cardano Foundation. This achieves focus, decentralization within the Cardano development and resilience. • Charles Hoskinson, Cardano co-founder, hosts periodical AMA's on his YouTube personal channel. It achieves great communication with the community. • Cardano keeps usually at number 1 for Github commits. They are real work, you can check the code. • Everything that Cardano makes is open source, so it's also an accomplishment for the whole space, not just for Cardano. • There are different 3rd-party multi-currency wallets supporting Cardano, like Infinito and Atomic.
Since the witches, wolves, and ghouls are upon us, what are your biggest fears? Mines is the thought of being alone for the rest of my life.
TL;DR - This post is for the sole purpose of choosing a winner. By 16:00 UTC (less than an hour as of posting this), the winner will be selected. The Bitcoin (BTC) blockchain will be used to pick this winner. This can be verified at any device running Python 3.7, and you do not need to own Bitcoin in order to participate. Additionally, all information to replicate the Drawing at home is available on Dropbox, scroll down for more information. Importantly, this post WILL NOT BE EDITED in order to keep the integrity of the Drawing. To verify this, look for a star near the period since its creation. The winner will be announced in a stickied comment. If you would like to watch the winner being picked live, head here: https://twitch.tv/nandinmaster Copying and pasting is boring, but I'd rather do that than rewrite the complete explanation: The Bitcoin (BTC) blockchain will be used to choose a winner. Once the time listed has passed, there will be an active check to determine the blockchain's winning hash. Like before, this subreddit will wait for the 3rd Block after the time (being 16:00 UTC) to select the winner. If a block is discovered by 15:59 UTC, it will not be counted towards the counter of three blocks. If it's discovered by 16:00 UTC, then it will, simple. This can be checked by seeing the timestamp given to it by blockchain explorers. You are able to see how this subreddit will verify the winner by checking the Dropbox folder, which also includes a back-up plan in case of an emergency. For Your Awareness: This post will not be edited, aside from ninja edits for formatting. This is to prevent tampering of the hash or files by any of the moderators. To verify if a hash for a file is that of Draw #35, go to the Comment IDs' text, and select all, excluding the beginning two lines. Afterwards, paste it into a SHA-256 generator. The hash you receive should be the same as what is listed here. If you are interested in doing this for yourself, download Python 3 and follow the path to the text file here: MillionaireMakers Drawing #35\Drawing\MillionaireMakers_#35_Comment_IDs.txt Inevitable Stream: Similar to last time's drawing, there will be a stream on my Twitch channel: https://twitch.tv/nandinmaster This stream, while it may start earlier, will happen at 16:00 UTC, which in my time-zone, translates to 12:00 PM ET (noon). This stream will occur on Android via screen recording, and most likely under a cellular service's umbrella. Thank you for reading this. Information Used For Draw #35:
Dropbox Folder: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/1o98cnzl3wacp17/AADs171b_ZXvvHqeXCVI8Xdua?dl=0 SHA-256 (hash.online-convert.com): 9139a796d9a31b6196ea2583c96e5ac5073dd866bea8eb25444d0fcd8d36863a Python PRAW Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/8aqwy90b7a307ja/%28ALTERED%29%20MM%20Comment%20IDs%20Retrieval%20via%20PRAW.py?dl=0 Python Selection Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/5vilkcidzwha69k/MillionaireMakers%20%2335%20Drawing%20Code.py?dl=0 Comment IDs' Text: https://www.dropbox.com/s/xeoby8mdzkbmrnf/MillionaireMakers_Comment_IDs_35.txt?dl=0 Block Selection: The Third Block After 21 October 2018 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 16,916
Bonus haiku! It's lonely down here. I don't want to live in fear. Yet, I must be near.
Why use the blockchain instead of a database? What gives tokens value?
Edit: By popular demand, here’s the Medium version of this post: https://medium.com/@matrixportfolio/why-use-the-blockchain-instead-of-a-database-what-gives-tokens-value-263449681153 I see these questions asked all the time by newbies entering the space, either for specific projects, or as a general question. So I thought I'd attempt to write a detailed yet basic explanation on the utility of tokens, and what justifies the use of a blockchain. Basically, blockchain inherits a lot of game theory and incentive methodologies. In order for a blockchain network to be valuable or useful, it has to have participants in a network, it would be worthless if Bitcoin only had me and you using it, there's not much value there in a barren network with not much utility. In order to secure participants, there needs to be some sort of incentive to attract them, the most common method is via issuance or reward of the token used in the network, the more participants, the more decentralized it is. So why not just a database, why do these projects need a blockchain? So basically, there are a few key benefits to decentralizing things instead of keeping it in a centralized servedatabase:
Immutability Having records and data decentralized, and deployed on a blockchain makes it virtually impossible for any one party to tamper with data or records. Versus how it is now, if you host your data on let's say, your computer, you can easily edit that file, before you send it to someone else, how can I ensure I can trust you? Security Traditional servers or data are generally centralized, making it a likely target for malicious attacks. Just look at the Equifax breaches and other cybersecurity concerns arising in recent times. Instead of having a single or limited # of servers hackers can attack, decentralization via the blockchain greatly increases the difficulty. The more participants/nodes in a network, the more copies of the data there is. Therefore, if you want to tamper with the data, you will need to attack every single node on the network and alter all of their data simultaneously. Not only does blockchain make data tamper proof, it is also hard to breach. Every “block” on a chain contains a certain amount of data, and when that block gets filled, much like a USB drive, it is encrypted and sealed forever. To get the full picture, hackers will need to hack not just the current block, but also every block before it. This is not only technically almost impossible, but it is costly, thereby reducing the incentive for malicious activities. Different blockchains have different security measures and algorithms, this is a generalization of the concepts. Redundancy You basically have the same set of data distributed across the world, you don't need to worry if you lose your copy. This provides data resilience to corporations which gives peace of mind from any data corruption, server downtimes, etc Overhead/cost reduction Having a decentralized network of nodes to maintain this ledger allows companies to offset and offload hosting, security, and maintenance costs. It removes a lot of the costs of IT staffing, Dev Ops, and infrastructural overhead. For example: Apple's servers are literally under attack constantly. They have teams, and teams of people monitoring their servers 24/7/365. Accountability Obviously, with all of the above in place, you can be sure that everything that is logged or deployed on the blockchain, is accurate, and true. All of this results in the ease of trust, and ease of the ability to do business in a transparent manner, without needing to trust the counter-party. You can simply leverage blockchain technology to let the data and facts speak for themselves. Do currently systems and data infrastructures work? Sure, but they are not perfect. They only exist the way they do because there hasn't been technology that could come along and offer a vast improvement until the introduction of Blockchain. Ok but what gives token value? Why are they needed? Well, it really depends on the project. 90% of the projects out there are pure bullshit, but for sake of argument, I'll simply address it for the ones that have actual utility and use cases. As mentioned above, tokens are often used as a method of incentivizing participating in a network, therefore, a successful network means there are a plethora of participants, contributing to the decentralization and securitization of a network. The more participants, the more consensus there is that the network has utility, like Bitcoin. It was worth nothing when Satoshi first introduced it to the world, and it was only him on the network. But as it gained adoption, there is increasing consensus now that Bitcoin the token, has utility as a currency, and therefore intrinsic value between participants in the network. There are generally a few classes of tokens and each class derives value differently:
Currency tokens - Tokens like Bitcoin, Monero, Raiblocks, etc
Utility tokens - Tokens that allow you to essentially use or perform an activity on a network, such as ETH or ZRX. On the Ethereum network you would need to spend Ether (aka gas), to run a smart contract, etc
Asset tokens - Tokens that represent an actual asset or product
Equity tokens - Tokens that basically act like a share, and gives you voting rights
For a currency token like Bitcoin, it's value is derived primarily on the use case of it being a currency/store of value. For utility tokens, value could come from the adoption and usage of the network, for example, the amount of data that gets put on the blockchain, and the amount of information that it's processing, as there are parties willing to pay transaction fees to nodes to process, validate, exchange, and secure that data. This could be decentralized exchanges, or businesses putting supply chain data on the blockchain, etc. For an asset token, this could be tied to the valuation of the assets (ie: Cryptokitties could be considered an asset, yet the underlying network powering it is Ethereum, thereby giving ETH value because it is a method of trade, and it now has utility to trade this asset) that it's tied to or represents. If a CryptoKitty is traded and its value is tied to a KittyCoin, then that would make KittyCoin an asset token. Equity tokens, this could be valued closer to the investor sentiment and the progress of the project itself. Are they getting business and real world adoption? What kind of voting power will token holders have? What is the future potential and direction of the company? So now that we know where value is derived from, what affects their price? Every project and token may have different stimuli or economic models that affect price. Speculation aside, here's a few technical factors that affect it regardless of investor sentiment:
Supply & demand - This is likely the largest factor in the valuation of a token, especially today, where the market is purely speculative
Adoption/utility - Is there any activity on the network? What's the usage like?
Burn rates - Do tokens get burned over time or upon usage? What's the rate?
Circulation & lockups - How much is in circulation? Is there any lockups?
Generation of secondary token (like NEO/GAS), etc
Staking - Do you earn additional tokens by locking up and "staking" your holdings to secure the network?
Mined/premined - How much of the coins are released and what's the schedule? Or is it all mined already?
So as you can see there are a large number of factors that can affect the valuation and price of a token. But at least I hope this post explains the general question of "why is a token even worth anything". I hope I've explained the concepts of why a blockchain is needed and the incentive structure around decentralization and its benefits, as well as why tokens are needed and what drives value. If anything's unclear or if I've made any mistakes, please make a suggestion to improve the post! :) Good luck!
**Last updated: May 30, 2018: Updated wallet info with release of Trinity. This 4 part series from the IOTA foundation covers most of the technical FUD centered at IOTA. https://blog.iota.org/official-iota-foundation-response-to-the-digital-currency-initiative-at-the-mit-media-lab-part-1-72434583a2 Also the official IOTA faq on iota.org answers nearly all of these questions if you want to hear the answers directly. Purpose of Writing Since posting FUD is so ridiculously low-effort in comparison to setting the record straight, I felt it necessary to put a log of copy-pastas together to balance the scales so its just as easy to answer the FUD as it was to generate it. So next time you hear someone say "IOTA is centralized", you no longer have to take an hour out of your day and spin your wheels with someone who likely had an agenda to begin with. You just copy-paste away and move on. It's also worth mentioning IOTA devs are too damn busy working on the protocol and doing their job to answer FUD. So I felt a semblance of responsibility. Here they are. These answers are too my understanding so if you see something that doesn't look right let me know! They are divided into the following categories so if you are interested in a specific aspect of IOTA you can scroll to that section. 1) WALLET 2) COMMUNITY 3) INVESTING 4) TECHNICAL
IOTA was hacked and users funds were stolen!
First, IOTA was not hacked. The term “hacked” is thrown around way too brazingly nowadays and often used to describe events that weren’t hacks to begin with. Its a symptom of this space growing way too fast creating situations of the blind leading the blind and causing hysteria. What happened: Many IOTA users trusted a certain 3rd party website to create their seed for their wallets. This website silently sent copies of all the seeds generated to an email address and waited till it felt it had enough funds, then it took everyones money simultaneously. That was the ”hack”. https://blog.iota.org/the-secret-to-security-is-secrecy-d32b5b7f25ef The lesson: The absolute #1 marketed feature of crypto is that you are your own bank. Of everything that is common knowledge about crypto, this is at the top. But being your own bank means you are responsible for the security of your own funds. There is no safety net or centralized system in place that is going to bail you out. For those that don’t know (and you really should if you’ve invested in anything crypto), your seed is your username-pw-security question-backup email all rolled into one. Would you trust a no-name 3rd party website to produce your username+pw for your bank account? Because thats essentially what users did. The fix: Make your seed offline with the generators in the sidebar or use dice. This is outlined in the “how to generate wallet and seed” directly following. The trinity and carriota wallets will have seed generators within them upon their release.
How to generate wallet and seed
1) Download official trinity wallet here 2) follow the instructions on the app. 3) Do not run any apps in conjunction with the trinity app. Make sure all other apps are completely closed out on your device.
Are you sure a computer can’t just guess my seed?
An IOTA seed is 81 characters long. There are more IOTA seed combinations than atoms in the universe. All the computers in the world combined would take millions billions of years just to find your randomly generated one that’s located somewhere between the 0th and the 2781st combination. The chance for someone to randomly generate the exact same seed as yours is 1 / (2781). If you can’t fathom the number 27 ^ 81, this video should help: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8YIdmwcubc
Download Bolero and run! Bolero is an all-in-one full node install package with the latest IOTA IRI and Nelson all under a one-click install! https://github.com/SemkoDev/bolero.fun/releases "If you want to help the network then spam the network. If you really want to help the network then create a full node and let others spam you!"
No questions or concerns get upvoted, only downvoted!
That’s just the nature of this business. Everyone in these communities has money at stake and are extremely incentivized to keep only positive news at the top of the front page. There is nothing you're going to do about that on this subreddit or any crypto subreddit. It's just a reddit fact of life we have to deal with. Everyone has a downvote and everyone has an upvote. But what can be done is just simply answer the questions even if they are downvoted to hell. Yea most people wont' see the answers or discussion but that one person will. every little bit counts. I will say that there are most certainly answers to nearly every FUD topic out there. Every single one. A lot of the posts I'm seeing as of late especially since the price spike are rehashed from months ago. They are often not answered not because there isn't an answeexplanation, but because regulars who have the answers simply don't see them (for the reason listed above). I can see how it's easy for this to be interpreted (especially by new users) as there not being an answer or "the FUDsters are on to something" but thats just not the case.
IOTA Devs do not respond appropriately to criticism
When critiquers provide feedback that is ACTUALLY useful to the devs, then sure they'll be glad to hear it. So far not once has an outside dev brought up something that the IOTA devs found useful. Every single time it ends up being something that was already taken into consideration with the design and if the critiquer did an ounce of research they would know that. Thus you often find the IOTA devs dismissing their opinion as FUD and responding with hostility because all their critique is really doing is sending the message to their supporters that they are not supposed to like IOTA anymore. Nick Johnson was a perfect example of this. The Ethereum community was co-existing [peacefully]with IOTA’s community (as they do with nearly all alt coins) until Nick wrote his infamous article. Then almost overnight Ethereum decided it didn’t like IOTA anymore and we’ve been dealing with that shit since. As of today, add LTC to that list with Charlie’s (even admitting) ignorant judgement of IOTA. 12/17/2017: Add John McAfee (bitcoin cash) and Peter Todd (bitcoin) to the list of public figures who have posted ignorantly on IOTA.
A lot of crypto communities certainly like to hate on IOTA...
IOTA is disrupting the disrupters. It invented a completely new distributed ledger infrastructure (the tangle) that replaces the blockchain and solves all of its fundamental problems (namely fees and scaling). To give you an idea of this significance, 99% of the cryptocurrencies that exist are built on a block chain. These projects have billions of dollars invested into them meaning everyone in their communities are incentivized to see IOTA fail and spread as much FUD about it as possible. This includes well known organizations, public figures, and brands. Everyone commenting in these subreddits and crypto communities have their own personal money at stake and skin in the game. Misinformation campaigns, paid reddit posters, upvote/downvote bots, and corrupt moderators are all very real in this space.
All IOTAs that will ever exist were sold at the ICO in 2015. There was no % reserved for development. Devs had to buy in with their personal money. Community donated back 5% of all IOTA so the IOTA foundation could be setup.
No inflation schedule? No additional coins? How is this sustainable?
Interestingly enough, IOTA is actually the only crypto that does not run into any problems with a currency cap and deflationaryism. Because there are zero fees, you will always be able to pay for something for exactly what it's worth using IOTA, no matter how small the value. If by chance in the future a single iota grows so large in value that it no longer allows someone to pay for something in fractions of a penny, the foundation would just add decimal points allowing for a tenth or a hundreth or a thousandth of an iota to be transacted with. To give you some perspective, if a single IOTA equals 1 penny, IOTA would have a 27 trillion dollar market cap (100x that of Bitcoin's today)
IOTA is not for P2P, only for M2M
With the release of the trinity wallet, it's now dead simple for anyone to use IOTA funds for P2P. Try it out.
Companies technically don’t have to use the IOTA token
Yes they do Worth clarifying that 0 iota data transactions are perfectly fine and are welcomed since they still provide pow for 2 other transactions and help secure the network. In the early stages, these types of transactions will probably be what give us the tps/pow needed to remove the coordinator and allow the network defend 34% attacks organically. But... if someone does not want to sell or exchange their data for free (0 IOTA transaction), then Dominic is saying that the IOTA token must be used for that or any exchange in value on the network. This is inherently healthy for the ecosystem since it provides a neutral and non-profit middle ground that all parties/companies can trust. If one company made their own token it wouldn’t be trusted since companies are incentivized by profits and nothing is stopping them from manipulating their token to make them more money. Thus, the IOTA foundation will not partner with anyone who refuses to take this option off the table.
All these companies are going to influence IOTA development!!
These companies have no influence on the development of IOTA. They either choose to use it or they don’t.
Internet of things is cheap and will stay cheap
Internet of things is one application of IOTA and considered by many to be the 4th industrial revolution. Go do some googling. IOTA having zero fees enables M2M for the first time in history. Also, if a crypto can do M2M it sure as shit can do M2P and P2P. M2M is hard mode.
Investing in a project in its early stages was something typically reserved for wealthy individuals/organizations before ICO’s became a thing. With early investing comes much less hand holding and more responsibility on the user to know what they are doing. If you have a hard time accepting this responsibility, don’t invest and wait for the technology to get easier for you. How many people actually knew how to use and mine bitcoin in 2009 before it had all its gui infrastructure? IOTA is a tangle, the first of its kind. NOT a copy paste blockchain. As a result wallets and applications for IOTA are the first of their kind and translating the tangle into a nice clean user-friendly blockchain experience for the masses is even more taxing.
Why is the price of my coin falling?!
This may be the most asked question on any crypto subreddit but it's also the easiest to explain. The price typically falls when bad things happen to a coin or media fabricates bad news about a coin and a portion of investors take it seriously. The price increases when good things happen to a coin, such as a new exchange listing or a partnership announced etc.. The one piece that is often forgotten but trumps all these effects is something called "market forces". Market forces is what happens to your coin when another coin gets a big news hit or a group of other coins get big news hits together. For example, when IOTA data marketplace released, IOTA hit a x5 bull run in a single week. But did you notice all the other alt coins in the red? There are a LOT of traders that are looking at the space as a whole and looking to get in on ANY bull action and will sell their other coins to do so. This effect can also be compounded over a long period of time such as what we witnessed when the bitcoin fork FOMO was going on and alt coins were squeezed continuously to feed it for weeks/months. These examples really just scratch the surface of market forces but the big takeaway is that your coin or any coin will most certainly fall (or rise) in price at the result of what other coins are doing, with the most well known example being bitcoin’s correlation to every coin on the market. If you don't want to play the market-force game or don't have time for it, then you can never go wrong buying and holding. It's also important to note that there are layers of investors. There's a top layer of light-stepping investors that are a mixture of day traders and gamblers trying to jump in and jump out to make quick money then look for the next buying (or shorting) opportunity at another coin. There's a middle layer of buyers and holders who did their research, believe in the tech and placing their bets it will win out in the long run. And the bottom layer are the founders and devs that are in it till the bitter end and there to see the vision realized. When a coin goes on a bull run, always expect that any day the top layer is going to pack up and leave to the next coin. But the long game is all about that middle layer. That is the layer that will be giving the bear markets their price-drop resistance. That is why the meme "HODL" is so effective because it very elegantly simplifies this whole concept for the common joe and makes them a part of that middle layer regardless if they understand whats going on or not.
How is IOTA free and how does it scale
IOTA is an altruistic system. Proof of work is done in IOTA just like bitcoin. Only a user’s device/phone must do pow for 2 other transactions before issuing one of its own. Therefore no miners and no fees. And the network becomes faster the more transactions are posted. Because of this, spamming the network is encouraged since they provide pow for 2 other transactions and speed up the network.
IOTA is centralized
IOTA is more decentralized than any blockchain crypto that relies on 5 pools of miners, all largely based in China. Furthermore, the coordinator is not a server in the dev’s basement that secretly processes all the transactions. It’s several nodes all around the globe that add milestone transactions to show the direction of the IF’s tangle within the DAG so people don’t accidentally follow a fork from a malicious actor. Anyone with the know-how can fork the tangle right now with a double-spend. But no one would follow their fork because the coordinator reveals which tangle is the legit IF one. If the coordinator wasn’t there (assuming low honest-transaction volume), there would be no way to discern which path to follow especially after the tangle diverges into forks of forks. Once throughout of honest transactions is significant enough, the “honest tangle” will replace the coordinated one and people will know which one to follow simply because it’s the biggest one in the room. Referencing the coordinator is also optional. Also, if you research and understand how IOTA intends to work without the coordinator, it’s easier to accept it for now as training wheels. I suggest reading pg 15 and on of the white paper analyzing in great depth how the network will defend different attack scenarios without a coordinator. For the past several months, IOTA foundation has been using St Petersburg college’s super computer to stress test IOTA and learn when they can turn the coordinator off. There will likely be a blog about the results soon. This is another great read covering double spends on IOTA without a coordinator: www.tangleblog.com/2017/07/10/is-double-spending-possible-with-iota/ This too: http://www.reddit.com/Iota/comments/7eix4a/any_iota_guru_that_can_explain_what_this_guy_is/dq5ijrm Also this correspondence with Vitalik and Come_from_Beyond https://twitter.com/DavidSonstebo/status/932510087301779456 At the end of the day, outstanding claims require outstanding evidence and folks approaching IOTA with a “I’ll believe it when I see it” attitude is completely understandable. It’s all about your risk tolerance.
Masked authenticated messages exist right now so data can be transferred privately. Very important for businesses.
Centralized coin mixer is out that foundation runs. Logs are kept so they can collect data and improve it Folks can copy the coin mixer code and run it themselves. Goal is for mixer to be decentralized and ran by any node.
How do nodes scale? How on earth can all that data be stored?
Full nodes store, update and verify from the last snapshot, which happens roughly every month. Its on the roadmap to make snapshotting automatic and up to each full node’s discretion.With automatic snapshots, each full node will act as a partial perma-node and choose when to snapshot its tangle data. If someone wants to keep their tangle data for several months or even years, they could just choose not to snapshot. Or if they are limited on hard drive space, they could snapshot every week. Perma-nodes would store the entire history of the tangle from the genesis. These are optional and would likely only be created by companies who wish to sell historical access of the tangle as a service or companies who heavily use the tangle for their own data and want to have quick, convenient access to their data’s history. Swarm nodes are also in development which will ease the burden on full nodes. https://blog.iota.org/iota-development-roadmap-74741f37ed01
On Tuesday 16th July, just a few weeks ago I was invited to attend a Karatbit, Karatbars/Karatbank presentation. The presentation was touting everything including a blockchain mobile phone. Someone had approached me over the weekend to investigate an investment, they had made with Karatbit/Karatbars. I attended the presentation with some research which, to be honest, was not that favourable to the company but nevertheless still went with an open mind. KaratBank, a Singapore-based financial organization, has propelled another digital currency that it claims is bound to real physical gold. Is this a progressive thought – or a trick? KaratBank, an organization located in Singapore, has quite recently declared the dispatch of KaratBank Coins (KBC), another digital currency it said is attached to gold. Be that as it may, not just the cost of gold, as different monetary forms — to real bits of gold: they're embedded in plastic cards or banknotes. In any event, that is the way it appears upon first sight. KaratBank is a sister company of KaratBars International, located in Germany. KaratBars really sells gold in exceptionally small quantities (like 0.1g to 1g bullions), inserted into plastic cards (Karatbars) or money like notes (CashGold). The notes are famously overpriced: back when 1 gram of gold was $40, the 1g CashGold note cost $65. As per KaratBank whitepaper, 10,000 KBC can be traded for 0.1g CashGold notes. The initial coin offering kicked off earlier this year and proceeded until March 21, with the ICO starting March 22 (1 KBC = $0.05), Coin Telegraph reports. Be that as it may, KaratBars International as an organization is emphatically connected with scams. A basic search for KaratBars on Google returns three connections with the word "scam" in them on the first page. KaratBars was prohibited in Canada in 2014 over an Autorité des marchés agents (AMF) with a Scam warning. The Canadian government found that KaratBars executes some kind of multi-layered marketing (MLM), or "pyramid" scheme organisation that urged individuals to get new recruits and profit from their sales, promising a return of $15,000 to $136,000 every month. In any case, Is KaratBank is a different story? All things considered, yes and no. Upon a more intensive look at the organization's whitepaper, one finds the following: "United States of America citizens, residents (tax or otherwise) or green card holders, as well as residents of Canada, the People's Republic of China or the Republic of Singapore, are not qualified to partake in the KaratBank ICO." As indicated by the Behind MLM site, the explanation behind this may lie in the way that those nations have actualized strict regulation on ICOs, and KaratBank does not have any desire to have anything to do with them. "ICOs are not unlawful in the US or Canada. In the US, however, ICOs are ordinarily viewed as securities and require registration with the [Securities and Exchange Commission]," the site reads. "Singapore hasn't prohibited ICOs however it is one of the nations KaratBars International works in through the shell companies KaratPay and KaratBars Singapore. Singapore regulators closing those organizations down would cripple KaratBars International. The board most likely figure it's best not to take any risks." To work lawfully in any purview, KaratBars International would need to register itself with the proper securities regulator in that jurisdiction, which the organization appears to need to abstain from, raising doubts. From one's point of view what is disheartening is that blockchain is a great new technology and companies like this seem to mix their existing business with cryptocurrencies. Knowing full well that the general public does not really understand cryptocurrencies, let alone blockchain or Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT). As a blockchain consultant, one feels obligated to pose some questions anyone thinking of getting involved should be asking. At the presentation, I heard the presenters say “ Karatbars is giving its members the opportunity to buy gold in small quantities. They also encourage you to save in gold instead of paper money. This can easily be done by buying as little as 0.1 gram of gold or 1 gram - 2.5 gram or 5 grams.” They said members can keep their gold in Karatbars' vault or ask them to send it to you. Cash gold is the most popular form of buying gold as the gold is embedded in a banknote. 24kt gold 99.9% pure makes it easier for anyone to accumulate wealth. Karatbars is also involved in cryptocurrency and got their own coins, namely KBC and KCB coins. I'm going to get very deep into this, but the main thing to remember is that they say, “these coins are increasing in value and that it is backed by gold”. whereas and another Cryptocurrency is backed by nothing. As a self-proclaimed proponent of blockchain and a graduate of Digital Forensics, I feel obligated to say a few words about this presentation on Karatbit or at least as a conscious citizen of this global world of technology users. Blockchain is a magnificent emerging technology that can be harnessed to do so many things. But most importantly it is a technology that provides one single source of truth. If groups are using this single source of truth technology to spread untruths, someone concerned must come out to say something. Blockchain is a technology that can put everyone on an even playing field but it seems very few understand it. The individuals with even the fleeting basic understanding can influence the general public perception of cryptocurrencies. This leads me to ask a great quote from a book called Richest Man in Babylon …. “if you want advice on investing in expensive jewels, why would you go to a butcher?” The following is what the masses are being manipulated to attach their hopes and dreams. It is that “a further drop in the value of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has recently left investors nursing heavy losses. Many proponents are holding out for a new breakout “if their digital assets can go mainstream.” The most important part of that statement is “if their digital assets can go mainstream”. This made me ask some questions about Karatbit and this is what I came up with. Something is fishy!! Can someone clarify the following? Claim 1: Gold mine worth $900 million provides security. Can’t find any official source as proof. Reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TyKQIckXyIU Claim 2: Backed by a gold mine in Africa Can’t find any official source as proof. Reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d5Q3ZvR4b04 Claim 3: Audit report by MM Revisors for a gold mine in Madagascar Can’t find proof that MM Revisors exists. Not sure if this report was published by Karatbars Int (can’t find it on their official website), but this is being circulated by some investors as if it were. Reference: https://karatbars-me.webnode.es/\_files/200000070-01d6002d18/audit.pdf Claim 4: Karatcoin Bank is a fully licensed crypto bank and is situated in Miami Can’t find proof that they are registered as a licensed financial institute in Miami, Florida. Can’t find Karatcoin Bank as a registered corporation, but found Karat Coin Corp. Reference: http://search.sunbiz.org/Inquiry/CorporationSearch/SearchResults?inquiryType=EntityName&searchNameOrder=KARATBANK&searchTerm=Karatbank Reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXip2Fizz5U&t=152s Claim 5: Not a pyramid scheme Karatbit describes this as an affiliate program but clearly is a pyramid scheme at best, see links below; Canada: https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/karatbars-quebec-activities-covered-by-prohibition-orders-514201571.html Namibia: https://economist.com.na/43874/extra/karatbars-international-is-a-scamsays-central-bank/ Netherlands: https://www.afm.nl/en/nieuws/2014/mei/waarschuwing-karatbars Claim 6: 100KBC = 1g of Gold at $40 per gram (1 KBC = $0.40) (guaranteed) Total supply = 12,000,000,000 KBC (can’t find figures of circulating, so using supply instead) Total gold needed to cover buy back of all coins: 12,000,000,000 / 100 = 120 000 000g = 120 tons (South Africa as a whole produced 139.9 tons of Gold in 2017). Total money needed to buy back all the coins: 120 000 000g x $40 = $4.8 Billion Can’t find proof that they have 120 tons of gold in storage (or backed up by the mines as claimed) or that they are at least worth $4.8 Billion to buy the gold? Taking a more conservative approach: According to icobench.com, they raised $100 000 000 with their ICO from 60% of the total supply. Let’s assume the 60% of 12,000,000,000 is in circulation. This equals to 7,200,000,000 KBC. Total gold needed for the buyback of 7,200,000,000 KBC: 7,200,000,000 / 100 = 72 000 000g = 72 tons Total money needed to buy back all coins: 72 000 000g x $40 = $2.88 Billion Loss for buying back the KBC that were sold during the ICO: $100,000,000 - $2,880,000,000 = - $2,780,000,000 A potential loss of $2,78 Billion!!! Or am I taking crazy pills? Reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgeHjhlMfn0 Reference: https://icobench.com/ico/karatgold-coin Claim 7: This Forbes.com article gives credibility to the KBC coin This article was written by a Contributor. Reference: https://www.forbes.com/sites/joresablount/2019/05/31/10-blockchain-companies-to-watch-in-2019/#308b507e543f There is no traditional editing of contributors’ copy, at least not prior to publishing. If a story gets hot or makes the homepage, a producer will “check it more carefully,” DVorkin said. Reference: https://www.poynter.org/reporting-editing/2012/what-the-forbes-model-of-contributed-content-means-for-journalism/ “Blogging for Forbes requires being what is commonly referred to as a "self-starter." So far, nobody has said, "Um, you can't do that," or, "Oh, my God, no!" Reference: https://www.forbes.com/sites/susannahbreslin/2011/04/06/how-to-become-a-forbes-blogge#231bb9972862 “Warning over 'scammers paradise' as watchdog reveals victims lost £27m to bitcoin, cryptocurrency and forex frauds last year” • Some 1,850 cases were reported to Action Fraud, a 250% increase on 2017-18 • Victims lost an average of £14,600 - with fewer than 1 in 20 getting money back • Investors are often initially told they've made a profit • They are then encouraged to put in more money - at which point the fraudsters run off with their cash Potential victims have been warned over bogus online 'get rich quick' schemes as it emerged people lost more than £27million to cryptocurrency and foreign exchange scams last year. Fraudsters promise high returns to those who invest, according to Action Fraud and the Financial Conduct Authority. Victims lost an average of £14,600 in 2018-19 and stand little chance of getting their money back. Reports of cryptocurrency and forex investment scams increased by nearly 250 per cent in 2017-18, from 530 to nearly 1,850. The scams work by criminals promoting get-rich-quick online trading platforms through social media. Posts often use fake celebrity endorsements and images of luxury items like expensive watches and cars. Beat the scammers: These then link to professional-looking websites where consumers are persuaded to invest. Often investors are led to believe their first investment has successfully returned a profit, and are then enticed to invest more money or introduce friends in return for greater profits. But the returns stop, the customer account is closed, and the scammer disappears with no further contact. 'Anyone handing over their hard-earned cash should make sure they understand what they're getting into, they've checked it's a legitimate investment, and not rely on hype and excitement from friends or social media. 'Investing isn't a get-rich-quick scheme - and anything that uses fear of missing out or requires you to invest before thinking is best to be avoided.' Those considering an investment to check the following for tips on how to avoid investment fraud at www.fca.org.uk/scamsmart. Scammers can be very convincing so always do your own research into any firm you are considering investing with, to make sure that they are the real deal. 'It's vital that people carry out the necessary checks to ensure that an investment they're considering is legitimate. UK consumers are being increasingly targeted by crypto asset-related investment scams. Certain crypto assets, like Bitcoin and Ether (also known as cryptocurrencies), are not regulated in the UK. This means that buying, selling or transferring these crypto-assets falls outside FCA remit. The same is true for the operation of a cryptocurrency exchange. However, some types of crypto-asset products may be or may involve regulated investments depending on their nature and how they are structured. For example, firms that sell regulated investments with an underlying crypto asset element may need to be authorised by the FCA to do so. In recent months, the FCA claims it has received an increasing number of reports about crypto-asset investment scams. Some of them may involve regulated activities, others don’t, but all use similar tactics. How crypto-asset investment scams work Cryptoasset fraudsters tend to advertise on social media – often using the images of celebrities or well-known individuals to promote cryptocurrency investments. In this case, laughably they said KaratBit was endorsed by Barak Obama’s sister. Who is she and what does she know about cryptocurrencies and blockchain? The ads then link to professional-looking websites. Consumers are then persuaded to make investments with the firm using cryptocurrencies or traditional currencies. The firms operating the scams are usually based outside the UK but will claim to have a UK presence, often a prestigious City of London address. Scam firms can manipulate software to distort prices and investment returns. They may scam people into buying the non-existent crypto asset. They are also known to suddenly close consumers’ online accounts and refuse to transfer the funds to them or ask for more money before the funds can be transferred. Action Fraud has also issued a warning on cryptocurrency scams. How to protect yourself Be wary of adverts online and on social media promising high returns on investments in a crypto asset or crypto asset-related products. Most firms advertising and selling investments in crypto-assets are not authorised by the FCA. This means that if you invest in certain crypto assets you will not have access to the Financial Ombudsman Service or the Financial Services Compensation Scheme if things go wrong. The FCA doesn’t regulate crypto assets like Bitcoin or Ether which are vastly the most recognized cryptocurrencies, let alone KBC, they do regulate certain crypto-asset derivatives (such as futures contracts, CFDs and options), as well as those crypto assets I would consider securities. A firm must be authorised by FCA to advertise or sell these products in the UK – check FCA Register to make sure the firm is authorised. You can also check the FCA Warning List of firms to avoid. You should do further research on the product you are considering and the firm you are considering investing with. Check with Companies House to see if the firm is registered as a UK company and for directors' names. To see if others have posted any concerns, search online for the firm's name, directors' names and the product you are considering. If you’ve already decided you want to invest in gold, this might not be a bad company to side with. But if you’re just looking for an opportunity to earn a sustainable income and become financially independent, there are better options out there.
Blockchain: Simple Explanation Oleg Mazonka, 2016 Abstract—This paper presents a step by step introduction to what blockchain is and how it works. Index Terms—Blockchain, Hashchain, Bitcoin, Cryptocur-rency. I. INTRODUCTION Blockchain is a buzzword. You have probably heard it so many times you feel like you should undersatand what it is. To understand Blockchain technology, it is important to understand the backgrounds and motivations behind the invention of the Blockchain. In this context, most people have probably already heard that the blockchain technology goes back to Bitcoin and its inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto. We will answer the following questions in this report: Each computer in the blockchain network has its own copy of the blockchain, which means that there are thousands, or in the case of Bitcoin, millions of copies of the same blockchain. Bitcoin’s privacy and security features. How to buy things with Bitcoin. How to get started with Bitcoin mining. And that’s not all. Throughout the ebook, you’ll find expert insight and analysis from the author, dozens of links to useful external resources, and recommendations on the best Bitcoin services you should use. A bitcoin/blockchain history and explanation. So let’s start right at the beginning with the first blockchain, which is Bitcoin and the first use case which is money. Now bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency, but it’s definitely not the first digital currency. There have been many digital currency experiments from as early as the late 80s.
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